History Major

History Course Descriptions

The following courses are offered by the History Department. 

HTY 101 Western Civilization I
A basic survey and introduction to the heritage of Western society from ancient to early-modern times. Particular attention is given to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece and Rome. Medieval civilization is explored with a focus on the institutions it bequeathed to the modern world. The Renaissance and Reformation and the rise of the great nation-states are studied.Throughout the course important individuals are considered such as Alexander the Great, Caesar, Charlemagne, Michelangelo, and Elizabeth I. The course also introduces students to historical method. Cr 3.  Every Fall & Spring semester.

HTY 102 Western Civilization II
A basic survey and introduction to the heritage of Western society from early modern times to the atomic age. Particular attention is given to the Enlightenment, the French Revolution, the rise of the industrial era, the growth of nationalism, and the World Wars. Personalities such as those of Napoleon, Hitler, and Stalin are studied. The course also introduces students to historical method. Cr 3.  Every Fall & Spring semester.

HTY 121 United States History to 1800
A thematic treatment of the formative period of early American history from the era of European colonial expansion to the so-called Revolution of 1800. Political, social, economic, intellectual, and institutional development provides a context for addressing the peoples, personalities, and events of the colonial and early national stages of growth of the United States and its relations with the larger world. Cr 3.  Every Fall & Spring semester.

HTY 122 United States History 1800 to 1900
A thematic treatment of the nineteenth-century United States and its peoples. Chronological coverage of the nation’s political, social, economic, intellectual, and institutional development provides the context for addressing the personalities and events of the country and its relations with the larger world. Cr 3. Every Fall & Spring semester.

HTY 123 United States History since 1900
A continuation of the treatment of the American people and nation extends coverage of political, social, economic, intellectual, institutional, and diplomatic development through the twentieth century. The events, issues, and peoples of the modern nation and their relation to the larger world are covered within the country’s increasing international involvement. Cr 3.  Every Fall & Spring semester.

HTY 141 African American History to 1865
Topics covered in this survey course include the persistence of African culture in the Americas, the Atlantic slave trade, an in-depth analysis of slavery as it impacted women and children, and the early African American voice as found in primary sources. The course will use various forms of media in instruction and research. Cr 3.

HTY 142 African American History from 1865
A continuation of HTY 141. This course will cover such topics as Black leadership, lynching, the Harlem Renaissance, African Americans abroad, civil rights, and popular culture. The course will use various forms of media in instruction and research. Cr 3.

HTY 152 The Islamic Near East
This is a basic, introductory survey of the history of the eastern Mediterranean/Near Eastern region ca. 600 C.E. to the present. The course emphasizes the origin and development of Islamic religion and the establishment, spread, and evolution of Islamic institutions in Arabia, Egypt, Mesopotamia (Iraq), Palestine-Syria, and Anatolia (Turkey). Attention is given to the historical and continuing interaction between the Islamic people of the Near East and nonIslamic people both within and without the region. Cr 3..

HTY 171 Traditional East Asia
The history and culture of China and Japan from earliest times to about 1700, with emphasis on the composition of the “traditional” societies. Cr 3. Every Fall semester.

HTY 172 Modern East Asia
China and Japan since about 1700, emphasizing contrasting moves toward modernization in two traditional societies. Cr 3. Every Spring semester.

HTY 181 Latin America I
This survey outlines the nature of the pre-Columbian Indian civilizations, their conquest by the European powers and the creation of the Hispanic and Portuguese empires in America. Cr 3. Every Fall semester.

HTY 182 Latin America II
This survey begins with the shattering of Iberian colonialism, and moves rapidly into the twentieth century. Special attention is given to Mexico, Brazil, Argentina and Cuba, and their varying solutions to the problem of national development. Cr 3. Every Spring semester.

HTY 200 Reference, Research, and Report Writing
An introduction to research and writing, designed to prepare undergraduates for the requirements of upper-level courses in history and the social sciences with emphasis on practical methods of utilizing a library, locating materials, taking and organizing notes, and writing and rewriting research papers and reports. History majors are strongly encouraged to take this course in the sophomore year, but no later than the first semester of the junior year. Preference to history majors. Prerequisite: sophomore status or permission. Cr 3. Every Fall & Spring semester.

HTY 300 History Internship
Professional experience in one of a variety of positions in public and private institutions that utilizes the knowledge and research skills of historians. Students work one day per week, keep a journal, write an evaluation, and are visited on the job by a faculty member. Open to selected students. Graded pass/fail, so does not count for major credit. Can be taken twice. Cr 3.  Available every semester by Internship coordinator permission.  Students should consult with Internship coordinator at least one semester prior to beginning their internship work.

HTY 303 History of the Ancient Near East and Greece
This course surveys the early history of the eastern Mediterranean region from ca. 4000 to ca. 300 B.C.E. The evolutions of Near Eastern civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel/Palestine, and Anatolia are examined and related to the development of Greek civilization in the Aegean area. Special attention is given throughout to social and religious issues, e.g., the early history of Judaism. Prerequisite: HTY 101 or equivalent. Cr 3.

HTY 304 History of Rome
This course surveys the political, social, and religious history of the Roman state from the eighth century B.C.E. to the fifth century C.E. Emphasis is given to the period of the Roman Republic (509-31 B.C.E.) and to the rise of Christianity within the Roman Empire. Prerequisite: HTY 101or equivalent. Cr 3.

HTY 305 The Historical Jesus
This course is a “workshop” wherein the participants analyze and evaluate a variety of documents (both ancient and modern) which purport to describe the life and career of Jesus of Nazareth. The goal is to develop historiographical skills (including writing) as well as to illuminate the subject’s life. Cr 3.

HTY 306 Roman Sexuality and Early Christianity
This course will explore ancient Roman relations concerning human biology, sexuality, and morality; the structure and definition of “family”; the gender-conscious operation of the extended household (including slaves and free clients); and the relationship of the family to the Roman state. The primary focus is the Roman imperial period, ca. 100 B.C.E. to 300 C.E. Because this same period witnessed the origins of Christianity within the Roman Empire, the course also is concerned with Christian variations to these same issues. Cr 3.

HTY 307 Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: Origins and Interactions
This course will survey the origins, nature, and early history of the world’s three major monotheistic religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Necessarily this involves a survey of the history of the Mediterranean/Near Eastern world in which these religions first appeared and prospered. The chronological focus is ca. 600 B.C.E. to ca. 800 C.E. Cr 3.

HTY 308 Polytheists, Jews, and Christians in the Roman Empire
This course, an exploration of the nature and function of religion in human society, uses the Roman Empire as a sample environment. The course will examine these independent religious communities as well as their interactions. Cr 3.

HTY 309 Religious Violence and Persecution in Early Western History
An interdisciplinary investigation of religious violence and persecution in early Western history. The course explores why religion and violence so often seem to be connected. Accordingly, the course will explore the general nature of religion and the historical function of religion in human society. Cr 3.

HTY 311 Medieval Civilization
Europe from late antiquity through the Carolingian Empire, Islamic Empire, Byzantine Empire, Medieval Church and State, and the coming of the Renaissance and Reformation. Prerequisite: HTY 101 or permission. Cr 3.

HTY 312 Renaissance and Reformation
A study of the transformation of European society from the world of the Renaissance to the crisis of the Reformation. The course will concentrate on the development of Italian humanism and its influence on Northern Europe. The rise of the Reformation will be examined through the personalities of Martin Luther and John Calvin and the intense feelings that engendered the religious wars and the Counter Reformation. Prerequisite: HTY 101 or permission. Cr 3.

HTY 316 French Revolution and Napoleon
The course takes the French Revolution as a climax of major intellectual, political, and social trends in eighteenth-century Europe. Thorough coverage is given to the Old Regime, the Enlightenment and the influence of the American Revolution. There is in-depth analysis of the coming, course and outcome of the French Revolution itself, and its impact outside France. The Napoleonic era is handled as the culminating phase of the revolution and as a major influence on nineteenth-century Europe. Prerequisite: HTY 102 or permission. Cr 3.

HTY 317 Early Russian History
A survey of the political, social, economic, and cultural history of the peoples of Russia to the mid-nineteenth century. The course covers geographical factors, the nature of Byzantine influence, the impact of invasions, and Russia’s contacts with the West. Contrasts between the experiences of Russia and Western Europe are stressed; contrasts with other civilizations are also noted. Prerequisite: HTY 101or HTY 102 or permission. Cr 3. 

HTY 318 Russia and the Soviet Union Since 1855
A survey of the progression from autocratic to communist society, through such influences as internal pressures for reform, structural weaknesses, wars and invasions, and various ideologies. The role of the intelligentsia is noted in the nineteenth century; there is a strong emphasis on cultural aspects of Russian and Soviet developments. Prerequisite: HTY 102 or permission. Cr 3.

HTY 324 World Wars I and II: European War and Diplomacy
A study of the causes, course, and consequences of the First and Second World Wars. The questions of inevitability and responsibility, the nature of total war, the workings of alliances, the effect of the military upon politics, the wisdom of the peace settlements, and the impact of war upon European society are among the subjects to be considered. Prerequisite: junior or senior status. Cr 3. 

HTY 326 History of England
A survey of England from Anglo-Saxon times to the beginning of the twentieth century, with emphasis on the nature of English monarchy, the development of political institutions, and evolving constitutionalism. Particular attention is given to broad movements such as the Reformation, the Industrial Revolution, and Imperialism. Prerequisite: HTY 101 or permission. Cr 3.

HTY 330 Germany: Bismarck To Hitler
A study of the formation of the German Empire, the rise of a powerful industrial state, Weltpolitik and defeat in World War I, the Weimar Republic, Nazism and the Third Reich, Germany in World War II, and the partition of Germany in 1945. The course analyzes nationalism and examines cultural, social, and economic factors which help clarify Germany’s role in the modern world. Prerequisite: junior or senior status. Cr 3. 

HTY 334 The Holocaust: Policy, Practice, Response
An examination of the roots of anti-Semitism in European history, the development of the policy of the extermination of the Jews and others in Nazi Germany, and the implementation of the policy throughout Europe during the Second World War. The varied aspects of the response of individuals and governments to the experience of the Holocaust are also considered. Prerequisite: HTY 102, another course in twentieth-century Europe or the United States is also recommended. Cr 3. 

HTY 335 Genocide in Our Time
This course will analyze the nature of evil/genocide by examining examples of governmentally or ideologically initiated murder. It will seek to understand the historical background and reality of victim, bystander, and victimizer. It will use a number of approaches, namely psychological, philosophical, religious, sociological, and political to help our understanding. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. Cr 3.

HTY 339 European Women’s History
A survey of women’s lives in historical context, from ancient times to the twentieth century. Emphasis is placed on various themes over time and across cultures, including those of work, family, political involvement, aspects of gender and class differences, and intellectual and cultural contributions. The field of women’s history and its methodology are also considered. Prerequisite: a prior history survey course and/or a women’s studies course are recommended. Cr 3.

HTY 351 Colonial America
The first half of the semester is devoted to the discovery, exploration and colonization of the American colonies. The second half concentrates on the social and political development of these colonies, touching upon various aspects of colonial life and emphasizing the growing maturation of society. Prerequisite: HTY 121 or permission. Cr 3.

HTY 352 The American Revolution
A study of the 1763-1789 period, stressing the breakdown of Anglo American relations; American independence and its ideological underpinnings; the Revolutionary War; the postwar struggle to strike a balance between too much government and too little; and the drafting and ratification of the U.S. Constitution. Prerequisite: HTY 121 or permission. Cr 3.

HTY 354 Hamilton and Jefferson
The 1789-1815 period as viewed through the lives of Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. Their ideological struggle leading to the rise of the Federalist and Democratic-Republican parties, and the political, economic, and diplomatic challenges facing the infant United States will be considered extensively. Prerequisite: HTY 122 or permission. Cr 3.

HTY 355 The Age of Jackson, 1815-1850
A study of the life and times of the “Old Hero” Andrew Jackson, with extensive consideration given to the rise of Jacksonian democracy and the impact on American politics of the controversies surrounding the Bank of the United States, internal improvements, the protective tariff, “Manifest Destiny,” and the sectional-slavery issues. Prerequisite: HTY 122 or permission. Cr 3.

HTY 356 Civil War and Reconstruction
An examination of the period 1850-1877, dealing with the background and causation of the war; Lincoln and the secession crisis; the military, political, diplomatic, and economic aspects of the Civil War; and the challenges and ultimate failure of reconstruction after 1865. Prerequisite: HTY 122 or permission. Cr 3.

HTY 357 The Gilded Age in America, 1869-1898
The United States in the age of enterprise with emphasis on the development of political and economic radicalism, the commercialization of agriculture, the rise of the American city, new directions in social thought, concentration of industrial wealth and financial power, and American foreign policy. Prerequisite: HTY 122 or permission. Cr 3.

HTY 358 Early Twentieth-Century United States, 1898-1938
The United States from 1898 to 1938. Analysis and interpretation of cultural, economic, and political developments of the Progressive Era, World War I, the 1920s, and the Depression and New Deal. Prerequisite: HTY 123I or permission. Cr 3.

HTY 359 The United States since 1939|
The United States from the Depression and New Deal through World War II, the Cold War, the Civil Rights Movement, and the Vietnam War. Discussion of economic, political, and social developments and interpretation of these developments. Prerequisite: HTY 122 or permission. Cr 3. 

HTY 360 History of Maine
A survey of Maine’s social, economic and political life from exploration and early settlement to the present. Cr 3. 

HTY 361 History of the American Frontier
The Turner thesis, historiography, and adaptations to the challenges of the environment are considered. Various frontiers from the Atlantic seaboard to the last frontier on the Great Plains are studied. Prerequisites: two of the following: HTY 121,122, and 123 or permission. Cr 3.

HTY 364 History of Women in the United States
A chronological survey of the evolving role of women in the development of the United States from the colonial period to the present. Cr 3.

HTY 366 History of Religion in America
A history of religion in American society from the colonial era to the present, examining theology, organization, leaders, critics, and the religious contribution to the American experience. Prerequisites: two of the following: HTY 121, 122, and 123 or permission. Cr 3.

HTY 372 American Social and Intellectual History I
An analysis of the evolution of American religious, political, economic, social, and scientific thought from the colonial period to 1865. The course examines major principles, assumptions, and values; the relation of American thought to class structure, ethnic and racial associations, mobility, and immigration; and the relation of American thought to contemporary intellectual patterns in the Western world. Prerequisite: HTY 121 or 122 or permission. Cr 3.

HTY 373 American Social and Intellectual History II
A continuation of HTY 372 from 1865 to the present. Prerequisite: HTY 121 or 122 or permission. Cr 3.

HTY 374 Photographing American History
This course focuses on how the invention of photography in 1839 forever altered the ways humans understood and made sense of both their past(s) and their present(s). Students analyze major historical events and moments in American history as captured through a camera, learn to read photographs as texts, and explore how the photograph has shaped American history and culture. Prerequisite: ENG 100. HTY 122 or HTY 123 recommended but not required. Cr 3.

HTY 375 History of American Culture

This course presents selected examples of American popular arts and entertainments from 1830 to the present and places them in their historical and critical contexts.  The course emphasizes that the production and transmission of culture is a reaction to social, political, and economics forces and events.  Prerequisite: College Writing;  Recommended: HTY 122 or 123

HTY 377 Chinese Thought: Confucianism, Daoism, and Zen Buddhism

Prior to the modern era, the Chinese interpreted their world through traditional idea systems, the most prominent of which were Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. This course will explore these traditions: their assumptions and values, their varieties and internal tensions, and their relationships to the larger social system. Prerequisite: HTY 171 recommended. Cr 3. 

HTY 378 Diplomatic History of the United States I
This course covers the development of key United States foreign policies from the Revolution to 1913-14. Prerequisite: HTY 121 or 122 or permission. Cr 3. 

HTY 379 Diplomatic History of the United States II
Analysis and discussion of United States foreign policy since 1914. Considers the origins and effects of policy and also differing interpretations of issues such as the nature of “isolationism” and “interventionism,” the origins of the world wars and the Cold War, the meaning of “Vietnam,” and the relative influence of economics and ideology in shaping policy and action. Prerequisite: HTY 123 or permission. Cr 3. 

HTY 380 The 1960s
This course examines social, political, economic, and cultural developments in the United States in the period from 1960 to 1970. It also looks at events worldwide, and the contested meaning of “The Sixties.” Cr.3.

HTY 381 Latin America and the United States
A survey of U.S.-Latin American relations with emphasis on the efforts of the U.S. government and multi-national corporations to adjust to the growth of nationalism, state capitalism, and socialism in Latin America. Cr 3.

HTY 383 The Society and Culture of Latin America
This seminar seeks to examine, through the use of popular novels and films, the principal characteristics of Latin American culture. Such elements as the role of dictators and revolutionaries, of machismo and imperialism, and of great haciendas, folklore, and religions will be considered. Cr 3.

HTY 388 Revolution of Modern China
A course on the political history of modern China from the 1840s to the present. Focusing on the political, social, and cultural revolutions, this course will examine their causes, courses, and consequences, particularly the ways in which these revolutions shaped the course of the political development of modern China. Prerequisite: HTY 172 recommended. Cr 3.

HTY 390 Traditional Japan: Court and Warriors
This course examines Japanese history before 1800. The primary focus will be on major political and social trends that led to the transformation of state and society. Attention will also be given to religious beliefs, rituals, art, and literature. Prerequisite: HTY 171 recommended. Cr 3.

HTY 394 Selected Topics in History
An analysis of a selected historical problem not already covered by regular course offerings in history will be offered. The course may be repeated for credit when different topics are offered. (Offered occasionally.) Cr 3.

HTY 397 Independent Study Semester
This is the course designator for students who participate in the History Department’s semester abroad exchange program with University College Winchester in England. Cr 3-15.

HTY 398 Independent Study in History
An independent research course offered only in fall or spring semester, primarily for juniors and seniors. The course material should not be part of regular department offerings. To enroll for the course, the student, in the prior semester, must present a proposal to an appropriate professor who will agree to mentor and evaluate the project. The normal outcome is a research paper. Application forms are available in history offices on both campuses. Cr 3.

HTY 400 Senior Seminar
The capstone to the major and required for the degree, this seminar explores the nature and the craft of history. The topic will vary but will always be a particular theme or set of issues to which the student will be expected, through discussion and writing, to apply the knowledge and skills acquired in previous history courses. Prerequisites: HTY 200 and senior status. Preference to history majors. Cr 3.

Other courses in the College of Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences have historical interest. With prior approval from the Department, majors may apply one such course toward their history requirements. Majors also are encouraged to take such courses as supplementary electives.