Modern and Classical Languages and Literatures

Course Descriptions

Literature and Civilization in English Translation

CLA 171 Etymology for Everyone
Etymology is the study of word origins and derivations. This course focuses on the learning of the Latin and Greek roots of English as a key to the improvement of English vocabulary. No prior knowledge of Latin or Greek is necessary, nor are there any other prerequisites. Cr 3.

CLA 270 Homer's Odyssey and Joyce's Ulysses
A close reading of the Odyssey and Ulysses, emphasizing the continuous parallels that tie Joyce's epic of Dublin to Homer's ancient song. Topics of comparison include the hero, family romance, and narrative strategies. Cr 3.

CLA 285 Classical Mythology
Examination of the myths of Greece and Rome from a variety of perspectives: anthropological, etiological, historical, psychoanalytical, structural. Cr 3.

CLA 291 The Golden Age of Greece
The literature, history, politics, philosophy, art, and architecture of the fifth century B.C. with particular attention to the achievements of Athens. Lectures, discussion, papers, slides, films. Cr 3.

CLA 292 Rome, from Republic to Empire
The literature, history, politics, philosophy, art, and architecture of Rome in the first century B.C. Lectures, discussion, papers, slides, films. Cr 3.

CLA 321 Art, Architecture, and Archeology of the Ancient World
This class explores the art, architecture, and archaeology of ancient Greece and Rome. Areas of investigation may include body image/ideal, architecture and politics, art and power, gender and sexuality, and mythology. Students will be expected to respond in written form to secondary literatures. This course is equivalent to ARH 321. Prerequisites: ENG 100; one CLA course or one ARH course, or permission of instructor. Cr 3.

CLA 383 The Epic Hero in Ancient Literature
Intensive readings in English translations of Gilgamesh, Iliad, Odyssey, Argonautica, Aeneid; discussion, papers. Cr 3.

CLA 384 What Would Antigone Do? Tragic Questions, Modern Responses
Exploration of ancient and modern ethical dilemmas via Greek tragedy (in English translation) and ancient and modern responses to it. Readings will be selected from Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, Plato, Aristotle, Nietzsche, Martha Nussbaum, and modern dramatists. Prerequisites: ENG 100/101/104C or HON 100 plus one of the following courses in ancient Greek culture: CLA 283H, CLA 291I, GRE 251, HON 101, HTY 101I, HTY 303, PHI 310I, or permission of instructor. Cr. 3.

CLA 410 Antiquity and Modernity: Capstone Experience in Classics
This course explores current issues in the field of classics and the impact of the classical tradition on contemporary culture. It includes selected readings of Latin and/or Greek in dialogue with modern texts, projects in the art of translation, and a thesis project. Prerequisites: LAT 251 or GRE 251 or equivalent. LAT 251 or GRE 251 may be taken concurrently with the Capstone. Not open to first or second year students. Cr. 3.

FRE 283 Contemporary French Thinkers
Readings and discussion of recent works of French literature selected for their philosophical and ethical importance: Saint-Exupery, Sartre, Camus, de Beauvoir, Teilhard de Chardin and others. No knowledge of French is necessary. Cr 3.

FRE 291 French Civilization I: An Historical Approach
Aspects of the society, institutions, arts, literature, and religion of France, from the origins to the end of the 19th century. No French is spoken in the classroom. Cr 3.

FRE 292 French Civilization II: French Revolution to Present
Aspects of the society, institutions, arts, literature, and religions of France from the French Revolution to the present. No French is spoken in the classroom. Cr 3.

FRE 293 French/Francophone Cinema
This course introduces students to movements and themes which have marked French/Francophone cinema and acquaints students with aspects of French/Francophone cultures through representative films from the French-speaking world. Prerequisites: ENG 100/104 or permission of instructor. Cr 3.

FRE 294 Topics and Themes in Francophone Studies 
This course, interdisciplinary in nature, draws from novels, short stories, poetry, plays, and other cultural documents. Students will gain an understanding of the complexities and specificities of Francophone entities in and outside of Europe. No French will be spoken in this class. Course may be repeated for credit provided the topic is different. Prerequisites: College writing or permission of instructor. Cr. 3.

FRE 304 Le cafe Francais
This course is designed to develop students ability to speak and comprehend French while learning about current issues in France and the francophone world.  Periodic presentations by the instructor and/or invited speakers on topics of cultural interest related to the French-speaking world (e.g., current events, film, art, music, cuisine, business, politics, cross-cultural encounters) will be followed by general discussion and small group conversation. Course repeatable for credit.  Prerequisites: FRE 202 or permission.  Cr. 1.

GER 281 The German Novelle
The study of the genre of the novelle and its development through the major literary movements from the early 19th century to the present. Authors read vary, but normally include Goethe, Tieck, E.T.A. Hoffmann, Kleist, C.F. Meyer, Storm, Musil and Mann. No knowledge of German is necessary. Cr 3.

RUS 281 Russian Literature in English Translation
The content of this course will vary. Topics will include: Russian literature of the 19th century, Russian literature of the 20th century, recent Soviet literature, Russian theater and cinema. The readings for RUS 281 and the discussions will be in English. Cr 3.

RUS 291 Russian and Soviet Culture and Civilization
A historical view of Russian and Soviet society and culture from the origins of the East Slavic settlements to the present day. No Russian is required. Cr 3.

RUS 293 Survey of Russian Cinema
A chronological overview of the Russian cinema from its beginnings before 1917 to the present, including the work of major directors: Eisenstein, Tarkovsky, Shepitko, and Mikhalkov. Films will be presented in a historical and political context provided by readings and lectures. Prerequisite: ENG 100C or equivalent. Cr 3.

SPA 270 The Culture and Civilization of Spain
This course examines aspects of the society, institutions, art, literature, and religion of Spain from its origins to the present. No knowledge of Spanish is necessary. Cr 3.

SPA 281 Masterpieces of Spanish American and Brazilian Literature
This is a study of contemporary literature representative of current trends in Spanish America and Brazil. Cr 3.

Classics: Greek and Latin

GRE 101 Beginning Greek I
Fundamentals of classical Greek. Emphasis upon acquisition of reading knowledge. Cr 4.

GRE 102 Beginning Greek II
Prerequisite: GRE 101 or equivalent. Cr 4.

GRE 251 Introduction to Greek Literature I
A study of Plato's Apology, Crito and selections from the Phaedo. Prerequisite: GRE 102 or equivalent. Cr 3.

GRE 252 Introduction to Greek Literature II
A study of selected books from Homer's Iliad or Odyssey. Prerequisite: GRE 251. Cr 3.

GRE 310 Seminar in Greek Literature
Readings in Greek prose and poetry; a different author will be read each semester. Translation, supplementary reading, paper. Prerequisite: GRE 252. Cr 3.

GRE 470 Independent Study
Cr. Variable.

LAT 101 Beginning Latin I
Fundamentals of classical Latin. Emphasis upon acquisition of reading knowledge. Cr 4.

LAT 102 Beginning Latin II
Prerequisite: LAT 101 or equivalent. Cr 4.

LAT 251 Introduction to Latin Literature I
Selected readings from masters of Latin prose and poetry. Prerequisite: LAT 102 or equivalent. Cr 3.

LAT 252 Introduction to Latin Literature II
Continuation of LAT 251. Cr 3.

LAT 310 Seminar in Latin Literature
Readings in Latin prose and poetry; a different author will be read each semester. Translation, supplementary reading paper. Prerequisite: LAT 252. Cr 3.

LAT 470 Independent Study
Cr. Variable.

French

FRE 101 Beginning French I
This beginner's course in French stresses the acquisition of cultural information and introduces the student to the four skills of language learning: listening comprehension, speaking, reading and writing. This course requires additional work with coordinated language CDs and/or MP3 files. Opportunity for practice with DVDs and computer exercises is available. Cr. 4

FRE 102 Beginning French II
Continuation of FRE 101. Prerequisite: FRE 101 or equivalent. Cr 4.

FRE 103 Review of Elementary French
Elementary French for students with some previous study of the language who feel the need for a refresher course before entering FRE 201I. Cr 3.

FRE 105 Reading French I
Beginner's course in French aiming exclusively at a reading knowledge of the language. No French spoken. Recommended also as preparation for language tests required by graduate schools. Cr 3.

FRE 107 Intensive Beginning French
An intensive course for the beginning student, covering a full year's work at the college level to prepare the student for the intermediate level of college French. Emphasis is placed upon the four skills of language learning: speaking, understanding, reading and writing along with an introduction to contemporary culture and civilization. The course requires additional work with coordinated language CDs and/or MP3 files. Opportunity for practice with DVDs and computer exercises is available. Offered during summer only. Cr 8.

FRE 201 Intermediate French I
Review of grammatical structures with further development of listening comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills. The emphasis will be on understanding cultures and contemporary life of French-speaking countries through reading and discussion. This course requires additional work with coordinated language CDs or MP3 files. Opportunity for practice with DVDs and computer exercises is available. May count for credit toward the French major. Prerequisites: FRE 102, or FRE 103, or FRE 107; two years of high school French or the equivalent or instructor's permission. Cr 4

FRE 202 Intermediate French II
Continuation of FRE 201. Credits may count toward the French major. Prerequisite: FRE 201I or the equivalent or instructor's permission. Cr. 4

FRE 206 Reading French II
Further practice of the skill acquired in FRE 105 through an accelerated reading of books on various topics (fiction, history, science, etc.). Successful completion of this course satisfies the foreign language requirement for the History major. Beneficial for students planning to attend a graduate school. May be counted as elective credit toward the French major. Prerequisites: FRE 105, 102, 103, or instructor's permission. Cr. 3.

FRE 207 Intensive Intermediate French
This is an intensive course for the intermediate student, covering a full year's work at the college level. Emphasis is placed on the development of listening comprehension, speaking, reading and writing along with an introduction to contemporary culture and civilization. The course requires additional work with coordinated language CDs or MP3 files in an online workbook. Opportunity for practice with DVDs and computer exercises is available. May be counted for credit toward the French major. Offered during summer only. Prerequisite: FRE 102 or FRE 107 or permission. Cr 8.

FRE 300 French/Francophone Practicum
In this course students participate in a number of activities in the French language, enabling them to develop and strengthen their ability in speaking and comprehending. They also gain an awareness and appreciation of various cultures of the French-speaking world. Since immersion content will vary, this course may be repeated, to a total of 3 credits. Prerequisites: FRE 202I or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Cr 1 or 0.

FRE 301 Practical French I
Comprehensive review of French grammar, enrichment of vocabulary, and practice in conversation, using a variety of materials, including films, videos, songs, interviews, newspapers and periodicals. Emphasis will be on achieving proficiency in all areas. Prerequisite: FRE 202I or equivalent. Cr 3.

FRE 302 Practical French II
Continuation of FRE 301. Prerequisites: FRE 301 or equivalent. Cr. 3.

FRE 303 Thème et Version
In this course, students will learn techniques and the art of translation through an analysis of the major linguistic and cultural differences between French and English. Translations will be done from French into English and from English into French. Prerequisite: FRE 202I or 207I, or permission. Cr 3.

FRE 304 Le Cafe Francais
This course is designed to develop students' ability to speak and comprehend French while learning about current issues in France and the francophone world.  Periodic presentations by the instructor and/or invited speakers on topics of cultural interest related to the French speaking world (e.g. current events, film, art, music, cuisine, business, politics, cross-cultural encounters) will be followed by general discussion and small group conversation.  Course repeatable for credit.  Prerequisite: FRE 202 or persmission.  1 cr.

FRE 305 French Phonetics
A formal study of the French sound system and an initiation into phonetic transcription with practical and remedial work in pronunciation. Prerequisite: FRE 202I or equivalent. Cr 3.

FRE 330 Art of Writing
This course will be devoted to developing the student's ability to write clear, nuanced, and well-articulated French in a variety of modes and formats. We will study and emulate various types of texts in order to develop a sense of style in French. The focus will be on writing strategies, the organization of ideas, and a continued appreciation for words and language use. This course continues the work in FRE 301 and 302. Cr. 3.

FRE 331 Workshop in French Literary Analysis
This course is designed to introduce students to reading strategies and fundamental techniques of French literary analysis and critical interpretation through close readings of short texts representative of the three genres (narrative, poetry and theatre). These works deal with concepts relevant to our everyday lives: questions of identity, self/other relations, desire, jealousy, time, longing, hypocrisy, the family society, solitude. Although the primary focus will be the individual texts, students will engage with the aesthetic, cultural, philosophical and social context of the works. All coursework will be conducted in French. This course is a prerequisite for all other 300-level French literature courses. Prerequisites: FRE 301 and 302, or permission. Cr 3.

FRE 367 Genres and Periods in French Literature
Each course in this group, "Genres and Periods," deals with a specific literary genre (novel, poetry, theatre) and/or time period (Medieval, Renaissance, seventeenth, eighteenth, nineteenth, or twentieth century). Sample topics: nineteenth-century French novel, seventeenth-century French theatre, twentieth-century French fiction. This course may be repeated for credit provided that the topic is different. Prerequisite: FRE 331 or equivalent. Cr 3.

FRE 369 Topics and Themes in French Literature
Each course in this group, "Topics and Themes," deals with a subject and/or a theme in French or Francophone literature. This course may be repeated for credit provided the topic is different. Prerequisite: FRE 331 or equivalent. Cr 3.

FRE 467 Genres and Periods in French Literature
An advanced course in the group "Genres and Periods," which deals with a specific literary genre (novel, poetry, theatre) and/or time period (Medieval, Renaissance, seventeenth, eighteenth, nineteenth, or twentieth century). Sample topics: nineteenth-century French novel, seventeenth-century French theatre, twentieth-century French fiction. This course may be repeated for credit provided the topic is different. Prerequisite: FRE 367 or 369 or equivalent. Cr 3.

FRE 469 Topics and Themes in French Literature
An advanced course in the group "Topics and Themes," which deals with a major subject and/or theme in French or Francophone literature. Prerequisite: FRE 367 or 369 or equivalent. Cr 3.

FRE 470 Independent Study

FRE 475 Capstone in French
This senior seminar will focus on a particular cultural history or literary theme or question in French or Francophone literature and/or civilization. The topic will vary but will provide students the opportunity to use the tools of critical analysis acquired in previous courses to engage in discussions regarding practical issues where students can demonstrate their oral and rhetorical skills as well as strategic thinking. Prerequisite: FRE 367 or FRE 369. Cr. 3.

German

GER 101 Beginning German I
This beginner's course in German stresses the acquisition of cultural information and introduces the student to the four skills of language learning: listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing. In conjunction with class meetings, additional work is required using language lab resources. Opportunity for practice with videotapes and computer exercises is available. Cr 5.

GER 102 Beginning German II
Continuation of GER 101. Prerequisite: GER 101 or equivalent. Cr 5.

GER 105 Reading German I
Elementary course in German aiming exclusively at a reading knowledge of the language. No German spoken. Not offered every year. Cr 3.

GER 107 Intensive Beginning German and GER 107 Lab
An intensive course for the beginning student, covering a full year's work at the college level to prepare the student for the intermediate level of college German. Emphasis is placed upon the four skills of language learning: speaking, understanding, reading, and writing, along with an introduction to contemporary culture and civilization. Daily practice in the language lab is required (for two additional credits). Offered during the summer only. Cr 6. (With lab, Cr 8.)

GER 201 Intermediate German I
Review of grammar. Further development of listening comprehension, speaking and reading skills. Emphasis on understanding German culture and contemporary life through reading and discussion of short stories, articles and essays. Students are encouraged to also register for laboratory practice (one more credit). Prerequisite: GER 102, two years of high school German or the equivalent. Cr 4.

GER 202 Intermediate German II
Continuation of GER 201I. Prerequisite: GER 201I or the equivalent. Cr 4

GER 206 Reading German II
Further practice of the reading skill acquired in GER 105. Recommended also as preparation for language tests required by graduate schools. Prerequisites: GER 105, 102 or instructor's permission. Not offered every year. Cr 3.

GER 321 Composition and Conversation in German I
Systematic training in correct pronunciation and usage, and in vocabulary building, with written and oral practice. Prerequisite: GER 202 or equivalent. Cr 3.

GER 322 Composition and Conversation in German II
Continuation of GER 321. Reading and discussion of historical, journalistic, and literary material covering life in Germany from World War I to the present. Prerequisite: GER 321 or equivalent. Cr 3.

GER 351 Introduction to German Literature I
Reading and discussion of selected works representing the major literary movements from Enlightenment to Realism. Readings are in German; class discussions and exams are in English. Prerequisite: GER 202 or GER 206 or an equivalent reading ability of German. Cr 3.

GER 352 Introduction to German Literature II
Reading and discussion of selected works representing the major literary movements from Naturalism to the present. Readings are in German; class discussions and exams are in English. Prerequisite: GER 202 or GER 206 or an equivalent reading ability of German. Cr 3.

GER 470 Independent Study
Cr. Variable.

Russian

RUS 101 Beginning Russian I
A course for beginners that includes the four skills of listening comprehension, speaking, writing, and reading. Students are also provided with cultural information needed to use the language correctly. The course emphasizes the acquisition of real Russian by using authentic materials. Cr 5.

RUS 102 Beginning Russian II
Continuation of RUS 101. Prerequisite: RUS 101 or equivalent. Cr 5.

RUS 201 Intermediate Russian I
This course further develops the four skills of listening comprehension, speaking, writing, and reading. The course provides students with the cultural information they need to use the language correctly. The aim of the course is for students to acquire "real" Russian and be able to deal with authentic materials. Prerequisite: RUS 102 or equivalent. Cr 4 .

RUS 202 Intermediate Russian II
Continuation of RUS 201. Prerequisite: RUS 201 or the equivalent. Cr 4.

RUS 301 Advanced Intermediate Russian I
This course involves intermediate-level work in the four skills of listening comprehension, speaking, writing, and reading that promotes the student toward an advanced level. The course emphasizes the development of the student's active and passive vocabularies and deeper knowledge of Russian culture. The course is taught primarily in Russian. Prerequisite: RUS 202 or equivalent. Cr 3.

RUS 302 Advanced Intermediate Russian II
This is the transitional course in the language acquisition sequence. Students who complete the course satisfactorily are ready to begin advanced-level work in all four skill areas. The class is conducted entirely in Russian. Prerequisite: RUS 301 or equivalent. Cr 3.

RUS 321 Advanced Russian
Students will read a variety of authentic texts ranging from newspapers to encyclopedias to literary works and will write extended essays, discuss ideas and argue points of view on a variety of subjects. They are also required to listen to or watch real Russian media. Students may also work on the art of translation. Prerequisite: RUS 302 or equivalent. Cr 3.

RUS 351 Seminar in Russian Literature
Topics for this seminar will be chosen from the following: historical surveys, genre surveys in the novel, short story, drama, and Russian women writers. All coursework is in Russian. The emphasis is on language and style. Prerequisites: RUS 281 and RUS 321. Cr 3.

RUS 470 Independent Study
Cr. Variable.

Spanish

SPA 101 Beginning Spanish I
A beginning course in Spanish in the four skills of language learning: listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing. In addition, audio-visual work is required. Cr 4.

SPA 102 Beginning Spanish II
Continuation of SPA 101. Prerequisite: SPA 101 or equivalent. Cr 4.

SPA 107 Intensive Beginning Spanish
An interactive intensive language course in which the skills of listening, reading, speaking, and writing will be emphasized and evaluated. Students will participate in daily lab activities. This course can be used as a substitute for a first-year language experience or as a beginning refresher course. Offered during the summer only. Cr 8.

SPA 201 Intermediate Spanish I
Review of grammatical structures. Further development of listening comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills. Continued emphasis on understanding of Hispanic culture and civilization through reading and discussion of literary and historical texts as well as frequent reference to contemporary customs and events. Students are encouraged to also register for laboratory practice. Prerequisite: SPA 102 or SPA 107, two years of high school Spanish or the equivalent. Cr 3.

SPA 202 Intermediate Spanish II
Continuation of SPA 201. Prerequisite: SPA 201 or the equivalent. Cr 3.

SPA 207 Intensive Intermediate Spanish
An interactive intensive language course in which the skills of listening, reading, speaking, and writing will be emphasized and evaluated. Students will participate in daily lab activities. This course can be used as a refresher course and can fulfill the requirements for an intermediate proficiency course. Prerequisite: SPA 102, SPA 107, or equivalent. Offered during the summer only. Cr 8.

SPA 300 Topics in Conversation
This course is a bridge between basic language proficiency and more advanced levels. All four language skills will be emphasized but in-class work will center on speaking. Prerequisite: SPA 202 or permission. Cr 3.

SPA 304 Advanced Conversation and Composition
This course focuses on listening, reading, speaking, and writing, with an emphasis on oral and written communication and critical thinking. Activities are communicative as well as cooperative with a focus on learning in context. Taught in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPA 300 or equivalent. Cr. 3.

SPA 305 Introduction to Hispanic Literature
A comprehensive introduction to literary analysis of Hispanic texts with an emphasis on acquiring the concepts and technical vocabulary needed to describe and discuss literary issues effectively. Taught in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPA 304 or equivalent. Cr. 3.

SPA 332 Advanced Grammar and Stylistics
This course involves systematic training in grammatical and compositional fluency and accuracy. Translation techniques will also be a component of the course. Prerequisite: SPA 304 or equivalent/permission. Cr 3.

SPA 351 Readings in Contemporary Spanish Literature
An introduction to the literature of contemporary Spain. All discussions and readings will be in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPA 304 or equivalent/permission. Cr 3.

SPA 352 Readings in Modern Latin American Literature
An introduction to the literature of modern Latin America. All discussions and readings will be in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPA 304 or equivalent/permission. Cr 3.

SPA 360 Hispanic Cinema
This course will explore specific themes in Hispanic Cinema. Films will be analyzed in a cultural and historical context.  Topics will vary.  Films are in Spanish with subtitles. Cr. 3.

SPA 450 Topics in Hispanic Language and Literature
An advanced seminar in Hispanic language, culture, and literature. Prerequisite: SPA 332, SPA 351 or SPA 352, or permission of the instructor. Cr 3.

SPA 470 Independent Study
Cr. Variable.

English for Speakers of Other Languages

ESL 006 Intensive Grammar
This course is a part of the Intensive English Language program (IELP). It focuses on building a stronger foundation in the grammatical skills necessary for more natural and accurate English, both oral and written. Through a series of grammatical exercises, meaningful drilling, and analysis of the structure of the English language, students will become more adept at producing a wider variety of language with a higher knowledge of use and form. The course will not only introduce new structures in language but also review and expand upon those already learned. (The credit for this course does not apply toward a baccalaureate or an associate's degree.) Prerequisite: instructor's permission. Cr 1.5.

ESL 007 Listening and Oral Communication
This intermediate to high-intermediate course is part of the curriculum of the Intensive English Language program. The course focuses on the improvement of the listening and oral skills that are necessary for the university classroom. Much of the material is derived from authentic sources, such as radio and television broadcasts, as well as lectures on a variety of topics that might be encountered in a university setting. The primary goal of the course is to assist students in recognizing a variety of spoken English and to discuss and respond to the issues. Students will also be exposed to a wide variety of vocabulary and grammatical structure as it arises in context. (The credit for this course does not apply toward a baccalaureate or an associate degree.) Prerequisite: instructor's permission. Cr 1.5.

ESL 008 Reading and Writing
This intermediate/higher intermediate course is a part of the curriculum of the Intensive English Language program. The course focuses on the improvement of the reading and writing skills that are necessary for the university classroom. All of the reading is from authentic sources emphasizing academic writing strategies for writing short reaction papers, summaries, and essays based on the readings. Informal journal writing is an integral part of the course. Students will also be exposed to a wide vocabulary and systematic overview of grammatical structure. (The credit for this course does not apply toward a baccalaureate or an associate degree.) Prerequisite: instructor's permission. Cr 1.5.

ESL 009 Intensive Reading and Speaking Fluency
This course is part of the curriculum of the Intensive English Language program. It focuses on the development of the fluency in speaking and reading that are necessary for the university classroom. Emphasis is on developing speed and comprehension of the skill areas. All of the reading is from authentic sources on a wide variety of topics, both fiction and non-fiction. Students will learn strategies for speaking in front of a group, compensating for accent, and conducting informational interviews. (The credit for this course does not apply toward a baccalaureate or associate degree.) Prerequisite: instructor's permission. Cr 1.5.

ESL 010 English for Speakers of Other Languages Level I: Intermediate Reading, Writing, and Vocabulary
An intermediate-level English language course for students whose first language is not English. This is a developmental ESL course designed to help students compose fluent and accurate writing as used in academic settings. Students will develop a greater sense of confidence in using written English as a method of communication. Emphasis will be placed on achieving completeness and coherence in written compositions and on understanding the mechanical aspects of the essay. In reading, students will learn to read for meaning and to analyze basic texts and a short novel. Through reading, writing, and specific exercises, students will expand their grasp of vocabulary and idiom needed for academic work. Prerequisite: instructor's permission. Cr 3.

ESL 011 English for Speakers of Other Languages: Intermediate Grammar and Writing
An intermediate-level English language course for non-native speakers of English that will enable students to benefit from a stronger foundation in understanding and using English grammar correctly and confidently. Emphasis is on understanding the meaning, use, and form of common grammar structures needed for academic writing. Students will have a basic knowledge of English grammar, but will need more work on accurate production of English, both oral and written, through a series of grammatical, written, and oral exercises. This course will be more developmental in that it will prepare students for the more advanced ESL 102. Prerequisite: instructor's permission. Cr 3.

ESL 100 College Writing
This section of College Writing is intended for non-native speakers of English only. The course focuses on the analysis of professional and student writing as a way of sharpening awareness of how to use the English language effectively for use in the academic classroom. The writing assignments encourage students to apply the principles discussed in class to their own work. This course cannot be used to satisfy a humanities requirement. Prerequisite: ESL 104 or instructor's permission. Cr 3.

ESL 102 English for Speakers of Other Languages: Advanced Grammar and Writing
An advanced-level English language course for non-native speakers of English focusing on building a stronger foundation of grammatical skills that will aid students in producing more natural and accurate writing skills in the English language. Emphasis is placed on understanding and using grammar structures needed for academic writing and discussion on the university level. Through a series of grammatical exercises, meaningful drilling, both written and oral, and analysis of the structure of English, students will become better used to producing more complex sentences and short essays. Prerequisite: ESL 011 or instructor's permission. Cr 3.

ESL 103 English for Speakers of Other Languages Level II: Higher Intermediate Reading, Writing, and Vocabulary
A higher intermediate-level English language course for non-native speakers of English designed to help students produce grammatical, well-constructed, coherent English, in both written and spoken form. Based on the writing process, students will write and rewrite paragraphs and essays drawn from topical and academic reading, works of fiction, and class discussion. Students learn to read and analyze for content and style a variety of authentic works of fiction and non-fiction. A strong focus will be on enhancing the students' academic vocabulary. Prerequisite: ESL 010 or instructor's permission. Cr 3.

ESL 104 English for Speakers of Other Languages Level III: Advanced Reading, Writing, and Vocabulary
An advanced-level English language course for non-native speakers of English who are nearly ready for College Writing but need additional work in fine-tuning their language skills. Much of the work done in this class will focus on reading academic literature, fiction, and non-fiction, as well as the academic writing skills necessary for university work. Additional focus will be on vocabulary extension and the use of idiom. Students will be required to write short essays, keep a written journal, and make a major oral presentation in class. Prerequisite: ESL 103 or instructor's permission. Cr 3.