Health: Rural Health

Profile of Rural Residential Care Facilities: A Chartbook

Abstract: 

As federal and state policymakers consider their most cost-effective options for strengthening rural long-term services and supports (LTSS), more information is needed about the current system of care. Using data from the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities, this chartbook from the Maine Rural Health Research Center presents information on a slice of the rural LTSS continuum—the rural residential care facility (RCF).  Survey results identify important national and regional differences between rural and urban RCFs, focusing on the facility, resident and service characteristics of RCFs and their ability to meet the LTSS needs of residents.  Rural RCFs are more likely to have private pay patients compared to urban facilities and their residents have fewer disabilities as measured by their functional assistance needs.  Compared to urban facilities, the policies of rural RCFs appear less likely to support aging in place.

Suggested Citation: Lenardson JD, Griffin E, Croll Z, Ziller EC, Coburn AF. Profile of Rural Residential Care Facilities: A Chartbook. Portland, ME: University of Southern Maine, Muskie School of Public Service, Maine Rural Health Research Center; May, 2014.

Publication Type: 
Report
Publish Date: 
May 20, 2014
URL: 
http://muskie.usm.maine.edu/Publications/rural/Chartbook-Rural-Res-Care-Facilities.pdf

Rural Residents More Likely to be Enrolled in High Deductible Health Plans

Abstract: 

Enrollment in high deductible health plans (HDHPs) has increased amid concerns about growing health care costs to patients, employers, and insurers. Prior research indicates that rural individuals are more likely than their urban counterparts to face high out-of-pocket health care costs relative to income, despite coverage through private health insurance, a difference related both to the lower income of rural residents generally and to the quality of the private plans through which they have coverage. Using the 2007-2010 National Health Interview Survey, this study examines rural residents’ enrollment in HDHPs and the implications for evolving Affordable Care Act Health Insurance Marketplaces.

Rural residents with private insurance are more likely to have an HDHP than are urban, especially when they live in remote, rural areas. Among those covered by an HDHP, rural residents are more likely to have low incomes and more limited educational attainment than urban residents, suggesting that it will be important to monitor HDHP enrollment, plan affordability, and health plan literacy among plans available through the Health Insurance Marketplaces.

Full report (Working Paper): High Deductible Health Insurance Plans in Rural Areas

Suggested Citation: Lenardson JD, Ziller EC, Coburn AF. Rural Residents More Likely to Be Enrolled in High Deductible Health Plans. Portland, ME: University of Southern Maine, Muskie School of Public Service, Maine Rural Health Research Center; May, 2014. Research & Policy Brief PB-55.

Publication Type: 
Research and Policy Brief
Publish Date: 
May 13, 2014
URL: 
http://muskie.usm.maine.edu/Publications/rural/PB55-High-Deductible-Health-Plans-Rural.pdf

High Deductible Health Insurance Plans in Rural Areas

Abstract: 

Enrollment in high deductible health plans (HDHPs) has increased amid concerns about growing health care costs to patients, employers, and insurers. Prior research indicates that rural individuals are more likely than their urban counterparts to face high out-of-pocket health care costs relative to income, despite coverage through private health insurance, a difference related both to the lower income of rural residents generally and to the quality of the private plans through which they have coverage. Using the 2007-2010 National Health Interview Survey, this study examines rural residents’ enrollment in HDHPs and the implications for evolving Affordable Care Act Health Insurance Marketplaces.

Rural residents with private insurance are more likely to have an HDHP than are urban, especially when they live in remote, rural areas. Among those covered by an HDHP, rural residents are more likely to have low incomes and more limited educational attainment than urban residents, suggesting that it will be important to monitor HDHP enrollment, plan affordability, and health plan literacy among plans available through the Health Insurance Marketplaces.

Associated Research & Policy Brief: Rural Residents More Likely to be Enrolled in High Deductible Health Plans

Suggested Citation: Lenardson JD, Ziller EC, Coburn AF. High Deductible Health Insurance Plans in Rural Areas. Portland, ME: University of Southern Maine, Muskie School of Public Service, Maine Rural Health Research Center; May, 2014. Working Paper #55.

Publication Type: 
Report
Publish Date: 
May 13, 2014
URL: 
http://muskie.usm.maine.edu/Publications/rural/High-Deductible-Insurance-Plans-Rural.pdf

Telemental Health in Today's Rural Health System

Abstract: 

Telemental health has long been promoted in rural areas to address chronic access barriers to mental health care. While support and enthusiasm for telemental health in rural areas remains quite high, we lack a clear picture of the reality of telemental health in rural areas, compared to its promise. This Research & Policy Brief reports on the first part of our study—the online survey of 53 telemental health programs—and describes the organizational setting, services provided, and the staff mix of these programs. We draw from our telephone interviews with 23 of these programs to help describe the organizational context of telemental health programs. 

Key Findings:

  • The scope and volume of services provided are often modest suggesting that the business case for these programs may be weaker than the clinical case.
  • The programs in our study were able to secure funding and other supports to implement services, but their ability to maintain and expand services to address unmet need is less certain.
  • Telemental health primarily addresses issues related to the distribution of providers and travel distances to care. However, there are underlying practice management issues, common to all mental health practices in rural areas, which pose challenges to the scope and sustainability of telemental health, including reimbursement, provider recruitment and retention, practice economies of scale, high rates of uninsurance, and high patient “no show” rates.
  • It is becoming increasingly apparent that telehealth technology, by itself, cannot overcome service delivery challenges without underlying reform to the mental health service system.

Suggested Citation:

Lambert, D., Gale, J., Hansen, A. Y., Croll, Z., & Hartley, D. (2013). Telemental health in today's rural health system. Portland, ME: University of Southern Maine, Muskie School of Public Service, Maine Rural Health Research Center.

 

Publication Type: 
Research and Policy Brief
Publish Date: 
December 18, 2013
URL: 
http://muskie.usm.maine.edu/Publications/MRHRC/Telemental-Health-Rural.pdf

Adolescent Alcohol Use: Do Risk and Protective Factors Explain Rural-Urban Differences?

Abstract: 

Adolescent alcohol use is a significant public health problem among U.S. adolescents. Past studies, including our own work, have found that rural adolescents were more likely to use alcohol than urban adolescents. Research suggests that protective factors, such as peer and parental disapproval, may be weaker among youth living in rural areas. This study examines the factors associated with adolescent alcohol use, whether they differ between rural and urban populations, and the extent to which these differences account for rural-urban variations in adolescent alcohol use. This knowledge is crucial to the development of rural-specific prevention strategies, targeted research on rural adolescent alcohol use, and long-term policy interventions. Our findings confirm higher rates of binge drinking and driving under the influence among rural youth than among urban youth. Rural residence is associated with increased odds of binge drinking (OR 1.16, p< .05) and driving under the influence (OR 1.42, p< .001) even when income and protective factors are taken into account. Our findings suggest that adolescents who start drinking at an earlier age are more likely to engage in problem drinking behavior as they get older, leading to a need for interventions that target pre-teens and younger adolescents. Moreover, since we found urban-rural differences in specific protective factors, these may be the most promising for evidence-based, rural-specific prevention strategies targeting parents, schools, and churches. These are the factors that convey and reinforce consistent messages discouraging adolescent alcohol use from an early age.

Suggested Citation:

Gale JA, Lenardson JD, Lambert D, Hartley, D.  Adolescent Alcohol Use: Do Risk and Protective Factors Explain Rural-Urban Differences. (Working Paper #48).  Portland, ME: University of Southern Maine, Muskie School of Public Service, Maine Rural Health Research Center; March 2012.

Publication Type: 
Working Paper
Publish Date: 
March 1, 2012
URL: 
http://muskie.usm.maine.edu/Publications/WP48_Adolescent-Alcohol-Use-Rural-Urban.pdf

Understanding Changes to Physician Practice Arrangements in Maine and New Hampshire

Abstract: 

This report examines trends in the organization and ownership of physician practices in Maine and New Hampshire. The Maine Office of MaineCare Services and the New Hampshire Office of Medicaid Business and Policy observed a trend in the conversion of physicians from private practice to other practice arrangements including Rural Health Clinics (RHCs), Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs), hospital-owned practices, and hospital outpatient departments. Faced with increased costs for care provided within these facilities, both Medicaid programs sought to understand more about these changes, including their magnitude, the forces driving them, and their short and longer-term implications.

Suggested Citation:

Lenardson J, McGuire C, Alfreds S, et al.  Understanding Changes to Physician Practice Arrangements in Maine and New Hampshire. Portland, ME: University of Southern Maine, Muskie School of Public Service, Institute for Health Policy; January 2008.

Publication Type: 
Report
Publish Date: 
January 31, 2008
URL: 
http://muskie.usm.maine.edu/Publications/ihp/PhysicanPracticeChanges.pdf

Health Care Access and Use Among the Rural Uninsured

Abstract: 

The uninsured have poorer access to care and obtain care at greater acuity than those with health insurance; however, the differential impact of being uninsured in rural versus urban areas is largely unknown. Using data from the 2002–2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we examine whether uninsured rural residents have different patterns of health care use than their urban counterparts, and the factors associated with any differences. We find that being uninsured leads to poorer access in both rural and urban areas, yet the rural uninsured are more likely to have a usual source of care and use services than their urban counterparts. Further, controlling for demographic and health characteristics, the access and use differences between the uninsured and insured in rural areas are smaller than those observed in urban areas. This suggests that rural providers may impose fewer barriers on the uninsured who seek care than providers in urban areas.

Suggested Citation:

Ziller EC, Lenardson JD, Coburn AF.  Health Care Access and Use Among the Rural Uninsured. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2012; 23(3):1327-1345.  doi: 10.1353/hpu.2012.0100

Publication Type: 
Journal Article
Publish Date: 
August 1, 2012
URL: 
http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/journal_of_health_care_for_the_poor_and_underserved/v023/23.3.ziller.pdf

Mental Health Services in Rural Long-Term Care: Challenges and Opportunities for Improvement

Abstract: 

Despite high levels of need, individuals in long-term care often fail to receive appropriate mental health services, especially in rural areas. In this Research & Policy Brief (and accompanying Working Paper), we consider challenges and opportunities for improving mental health treatment delivered to long-term care recipients in rural settings. As background, we note the prevalence of mental health problems in long-term care populations, describe deficiencies in the mental health care afforded to long-term care recipients, and identify barriers that hinder the remediation of these deficiencies in rural settings. We also outline a rationale for enhancing mental health services in long-term care. We then discuss new approaches that have been implemented or could be used to effect positive transformations in the delivery of mental health services to rural long-term care populations. We underscore the potential for synergies between these innovations and provisions introduced under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010. Finally, we delineate policy considerations for promoting new mental health service models in rural long-term care settings.

Suggested citation:

Talbot, J.A., & Coburn, A.F. (2013, June). Mental health services in rural long-term care: Challenges and opportunities for improvement. (Research & Policy Brief #50). Portland, ME: University of Southern Maine, Muskie School of Public Service, Maine Rural Health Research Center.

Publication Type: 
Research and Policy Brief
Publish Date: 
June 20, 2013
Author: 
URL: 
http://muskie.usm.maine.edu/Publications/MRHRC/Rural-Mental-Health-Services-LTC.pdf

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