Maine Rural Health Research Center

Rural Implementation and Impact of Rural Medicaid Expansions

Event Date and Time: 
Tuesday, March 18, 2014, 12:00 PM to 1:00 PM
Contact Name: 
Erika Ziller
Contact Phone: 
Contact Email:

The impact of the ACA Medicaid expansion on health care coverage and access in rural areas is largely unknown and will depend on the different state policy contexts in which the expansions are implemented and on existing system capacity. Understanding how many rural residents are likely to become newly eligible for Medicaid under the ACA, as well as their characteristics and health status, will provide important information to aid policymakers in structuring outreach and enrollment strategies and ensuring that the healthcare infrastructure and delivery systems in rural areas can address the needs of these individuals. 
On March 18th, Dr. Erika Ziller, Deputy Director of the Maine Rural Health Research Center at the University of Southern Maine, will present via a webinar, nationally representative information identifying rural-urban differences among low-income non-elderly adults (18 to 65) in the following areas:

  • Medicaid eligibility, pre-ACA
  • Medicaid participation, pre-ACA
  • New Medicaid eligibility in 2014

Dr. Ziller will also analyze the characteristics associated with any rural-urban differences in the above areas. Characteristics to be considered include age, gender, employment, education, income, Census region, health status, current relationship to primary care provider, primary care supply, and FQHC availability.

Register for the free webinar at:

This webinar is based on Dr. Ziller's research under a State Health Access Reform Evaluation (SHARE) grant to inform federal and state implementation of the ACA Medicaid expansion by estimating the size and characteristics of the rural population likely to be newly eligible.

Ziller co-authors chapter on children's health policy

Children's Health Policy: Promising Starts, Disappointing Outcomes, co-authored by Beth Kilbreth, PhD (Muskie School faculty, retired) and Erika Ziller, PhD (Deputy Director, Maine Rural Health Research Center), explores the many federal and state programs addressing the health concerns of children. This chapter is part of a collection of writings on the factors that shape the US healthcare system and policy, published in the 5th edition of Health Politics and Policy, a widely used text in university courses on health policy.
Health Policy and Politics 5th edition book cover

Telemental Health in Today's Rural Health System


Telemental health has long been promoted in rural areas to address chronic access barriers to mental health care. While support and enthusiasm for telemental health in rural areas remains quite high, we lack a clear picture of the reality of telemental health in rural areas, compared to its promise. This Research & Policy Brief reports on the first part of our study—the online survey of 53 telemental health programs—and describes the organizational setting, services provided, and the staff mix of these programs. We draw from our telephone interviews with 23 of these programs to help describe the organizational context of telemental health programs. 

Key Findings:

  • The scope and volume of services provided are often modest suggesting that the business case for these programs may be weaker than the clinical case.
  • The programs in our study were able to secure funding and other supports to implement services, but their ability to maintain and expand services to address unmet need is less certain.
  • Telemental health primarily addresses issues related to the distribution of providers and travel distances to care. However, there are underlying practice management issues, common to all mental health practices in rural areas, which pose challenges to the scope and sustainability of telemental health, including reimbursement, provider recruitment and retention, practice economies of scale, high rates of uninsurance, and high patient “no show” rates.
  • It is becoming increasingly apparent that telehealth technology, by itself, cannot overcome service delivery challenges without underlying reform to the mental health service system.

Suggested Citation:

Lambert, D., Gale, J., Hansen, A. Y., Croll, Z., & Hartley, D. (2013). Telemental health in today's rural health system. Portland, ME: University of Southern Maine, Muskie School of Public Service, Maine Rural Health Research Center.


Publication Type: 
Research and Policy Brief
Publish Date: 
December 18, 2013

Adolescent Alcohol Use: Do Risk and Protective Factors Explain Rural-Urban Differences?


Adolescent alcohol use is a significant public health problem among U.S. adolescents. Past studies, including our own work, have found that rural adolescents were more likely to use alcohol than urban adolescents. Research suggests that protective factors, such as peer and parental disapproval, may be weaker among youth living in rural areas. This study examines the factors associated with adolescent alcohol use, whether they differ between rural and urban populations, and the extent to which these differences account for rural-urban variations in adolescent alcohol use. This knowledge is crucial to the development of rural-specific prevention strategies, targeted research on rural adolescent alcohol use, and long-term policy interventions. Our findings confirm higher rates of binge drinking and driving under the influence among rural youth than among urban youth. Rural residence is associated with increased odds of binge drinking (OR 1.16, p< .05) and driving under the influence (OR 1.42, p< .001) even when income and protective factors are taken into account. Our findings suggest that adolescents who start drinking at an earlier age are more likely to engage in problem drinking behavior as they get older, leading to a need for interventions that target pre-teens and younger adolescents. Moreover, since we found urban-rural differences in specific protective factors, these may be the most promising for evidence-based, rural-specific prevention strategies targeting parents, schools, and churches. These are the factors that convey and reinforce consistent messages discouraging adolescent alcohol use from an early age.

Suggested Citation:

Gale JA, Lenardson JD, Lambert D, Hartley, D.  Adolescent Alcohol Use: Do Risk and Protective Factors Explain Rural-Urban Differences. (Working Paper #48).  Portland, ME: University of Southern Maine, Muskie School of Public Service, Maine Rural Health Research Center; March 2012.

Publish Date: 
March 1, 2012

Understanding Changes to Physician Practice Arrangements in Maine and New Hampshire


This report examines trends in the organization and ownership of physician practices in Maine and New Hampshire. The Maine Office of MaineCare Services and the New Hampshire Office of Medicaid Business and Policy observed a trend in the conversion of physicians from private practice to other practice arrangements including Rural Health Clinics (RHCs), Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs), hospital-owned practices, and hospital outpatient departments. Faced with increased costs for care provided within these facilities, both Medicaid programs sought to understand more about these changes, including their magnitude, the forces driving them, and their short and longer-term implications.

Suggested Citation:

Lenardson J, McGuire C, Alfreds S, et al.  Understanding Changes to Physician Practice Arrangements in Maine and New Hampshire. Portland, ME: University of Southern Maine, Muskie School of Public Service, Institute for Health Policy; January 2008.

Publication Type: 
Publish Date: 
January 31, 2008

Health Care Access and Use Among the Rural Uninsured


The uninsured have poorer access to care and obtain care at greater acuity than those with health insurance; however, the differential impact of being uninsured in rural versus urban areas is largely unknown. Using data from the 2002–2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we examine whether uninsured rural residents have different patterns of health care use than their urban counterparts, and the factors associated with any differences. We find that being uninsured leads to poorer access in both rural and urban areas, yet the rural uninsured are more likely to have a usual source of care and use services than their urban counterparts. Further, controlling for demographic and health characteristics, the access and use differences between the uninsured and insured in rural areas are smaller than those observed in urban areas. This suggests that rural providers may impose fewer barriers on the uninsured who seek care than providers in urban areas.

Suggested Citation:

Ziller EC, Lenardson JD, Coburn AF.  Health Care Access and Use Among the Rural Uninsured. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2012; 23(3):1327-1345.  doi: 10.1353/hpu.2012.0100

Publication Type: 
Journal Article
Publish Date: 
August 1, 2012


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