- Contemplating HR Certification? 10 Steps to consider
- High Quality Assessment Leads to the Best Plan of Care
- May I Have Your Attention, Please? Business Writing and Multitasking
- Sensible Multitasking: How to Almost “Do it All” Without Losing Your Mind
- Mastering Multiple Projects, Priorities, and Demands
- Expectations & Accountability
- What Aikido Can Teach Us About Conflict & Emotions
- Getting the Monkeys Off Your Back
- Technology for Grant Writers
- Making Meetings Count
Achieving the SPHR (Senior Professional in Human Resources) or PHR (Professional in Human Resources) certification is quite an accomplishment, and the long-term career benefits of becoming HR certified far outweigh the effort necessary to prepare for the exam. If you’re contemplating whether you should sit for the exam, consider these 10 steps.
10. Confirm exam eligibility
The first thing to do is to check on your eligibility to take the exam. Visit http://www.hrci.org/Exam_Eligibility to determine how your education and years of experience factor into the eligibility requirements.
9. Validate your knowledge
The exam is based on a comprehensive body of knowledge for 6 areas: Business Management & Strategy; Workforce Planning and Employment; Human Resource Development; Compensation and Benefits; Employee and Labor Relations; and Risk Management. The exam consists of 175 multiple choice questions taken from the body of knowledge.
8. Learn what's new with HR trends, best practices and regulatory compliance
The study materials provide you with practical information which you can apply to your job about Industry trends, best practices and legislative information to help you be compliant with new regulations. Not only do you learn to prepare for the exam, you learn about how to improve your HR practices on the job.
7. Network with other HR professionals
HR Professionals are people-people and like to gather for professional development, networking and to earn recertification credits. Take advantage of knowledge sharing and learning best practices by participating in SHRM events, such as chapter meetings and conferences.
6. Self study and group learning go hand in hand
I recommend preparing for the exam through self study and through the classroom setting because both methodologies are beneficial. During the self study portion, students read, take quizzes, study flashcards, listen to audio-casts and complete online practice tests. In the classroom environment, students ask questions, participate in discussions, and learn through the instructor's presentation. The SHRM Learning System, along with the HR Certification Guide, are quality study materials.
5. Obtain tools and resources for your job
If you work in the HR field, you need to be resourceful. You will have access to valuable resources in your study materials as you prepare for the exam. Additionally, you will learn where to find resources to help you in your HR role and obtain new tools for your HR toolkit.
4. Manage Exam Stress with Preparation
Being well prepared is the best way to reduce exam jitters. So committing to a formal study plan is critical when preparing to take the HR certification exam. Visit the testing center to preview the site before your exam date. It helps to eliminate apprehensions, and you will know the travel route too. Finally, remember that the correct answer is provided to you in the multiple choice answer selections. It is a matter of you understanding the information to select the best answer.
3. Become more marketable
Earning the HR certification proves your commitment to higher HR standards and your credibility in the HR profession. If you are seeking a new HR position, either through an advancement within your current company or a new position with another company, your chances of securing a new role increase when you have your HR certification credentials.
2. Turn your dream into reality
Stop wishing you had your HR certification or making excuses as to why you aren't currently HR certified. If you commit to a 3 month study plan, you can begin to prepare for the exam. The exams are offered twice per year, between May 1st and June 30th, and again between December 1st and January 31st. Be sure to apply through the HR Certification Institute to take the exam. The only thing stopping you from fulfilling your dreams is you!
1. Recertify every 3 years. It’s easier than you think!
Recertify by accumulating 60 credit hours of HR-related continuing education activities (or by taking the exam again). To recertify through continuing education, all activities must be completed before the 3 year anniversary of your certification cycle. There are oodles of options for recertification from webinars, workshop sessions, conferences, chapter meetings, projects, etc. Keep a log of your recertification activities with documentation that you participated, and you'll be surprised at how quickly you achieve the recertification requirements.
The next certification course at USM begins in the fall. More information about this course can be found on the USM website.
Don't delay, begin your journey to certification today!
-Kristine Avery, SPHR
SVP of HR - FISC Solutions, Lewiston, ME
As a nurse practitioner who frequently works with older adults, my best work occurs when my health assessment gathers the most accurate information possible from the patient. The highest quality assessment leads to the best plan of care for the patient.
I have found that the most important factor in learning what I need to know about an older patient comes from approaching the relationship in a way that I would want to be approached myself.
It’s a simple and obvious concept, but one that is easily overlooked.
When we are in an exam room, an office or home interview, or the hospital setting, we may be distracted by the pressures of busy schedules and problem-oriented visits, losing focus of the unique individual in front of us.
I directly greet the patient using their full name…such as Ms. Smith or Mr. Smith, make eye contact, shake their hand….prior to greeting others that might be with them. Making sure that I keep my laptop closed, seating myself, and starting the communication directly with the patient makes it clear that I am focused on them.
Optimizing the interview environment is important. If possible, create a private space by shutting the door or closing a curtain. Make sure it’s warm enough, that the patient can hear, and that you are not back lit so they can see your face clearly.
Then, if the patient is able to verbally communicate, I listen.
Sometimes I have to redirect the conversation, but most often it takes just a minute or two of listening to find out what the patient is thinking and what his or her goals are. It’s only after this time that I will start taking notes. This attentive and quiet start to the interview process lays the foundation of respectful communication.
I ask the patient’s permission to talk about their care directly with others in the room. I try to remember my relationship with my own parents. I knew them as my parents, not as the complex, long-lived, adult individuals they were. Although their input is often essential, family members can’t provide you with the whole picture of the patient and his or her way of being in the world.
It really is simple. Approach the interview with older patient as I would want to be approached myself. With careful respect, active listening, and a personal focus the assessment process will provide the best information possible. And that will help you provide optimal care!
Gale Johnsen, PhD, MSN
Lead instructor, USM Professional Development Certificate Program in the Advanced Assessment of the Older Adult
Gale Johnsen, PhD, MSN, is a family nurse practitioner living in western Maine. She has extensive experience in geriatrics both in family practice and long-term care settings. She has taught at the graduate level for Simmons College, University of New England College of Osteopathic Medicine, and the University of Southern Maine and regularly conducts workshops and seminars on geriatric topics.
These days, the pace at work is faster than ever. In response, more and more people find themselves multitasking. Doing more than one thing at once can be especially tempting when we’re writing or reading business communications. Surely, we can write an email and talk on the phone at the same time—or keep up with emails and texts while we’re participating in a meeting. The drive to multitask can seem like a survival tactic.
But here’s the problem: There’s no such thing as multitasking on complex tasks. (On simple tasks, such as walking and chewing gum, yes.) Current brain research is revealing that when we think we’re multitasking, we’re simply fooling ourselves—because multitasking is, in reality, shifting back and forth between one task and another. We’re still doing one thing at a time. Significantly, these continual shifts in attention increase time on task and number of errors made—and possibly (this is my own hypothesis) reduce optimal business judgment.
So what can you do to be a more effective business writer?
The only person you can control is yourself. I’m making a plea that when you’re writing, you make a concerted effort to focus solely on the act of writing—even something as ubiquitous as email. You’ll get it done faster and have more time to deal with other tasks.
At the very least, if you cannot focus solely on writing, then make a commitment to “uni-task” during proofreading. (You are proofreading all your writing, aren’t you?) This focused attention will help you consider the best organizational structure for your message, delete excess verbiage, and catch mistakes in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.
On the other hand, you can’t control your reading audience. For all you know, your reader could be trying to do six things at once—or be interrupted multiple times—while processing your message. How can you write most effectively for the distracted reader? The answer is to make your document—long or short—easy to read:
Avoid overly long sentences.
Create white space by putting separate points in separate paragraphs.
Begin each paragraph with its main point.
Consider labeling paragraphs with subheads, so readers can quickly find where they left off if interrupted (or what specifically pertains to them if one document will have multiple readers).
As a writer, saying no to multitasking will ultimately make you more efficient. What’s more, writing for readers who may themselves be multitasking will reap dividends in reader appreciation that will help you advance your goals.
-Elizabeth K. Dodge, M.F.A.
L’Atelier Writing, Editing & Training
This spring, Elizabeth Dodge teaches Business Writing Basics: A Grammar & Punctuation Review and Professional Writing.
Elizabeth Dodge, M.F.A., is a freelance writer, editor, and trainer in Portland. She has more than 20 years of experience in technical writing, marketing communications, public relations, and publishing. She has been teaching and tutoring for more than 15 years, sharing her passion for writing with a coaching style that is sensitive to the personal nature of writing.
Ever tried talking to someone at a party while also trying to make out the lyrics of a song playing in the background, or taking in the audio AND the visual of two separate movies on adjacent televisions on a store shelf? If so, you are well aware that it’s impossible to focus simultaneously on two activities requiring your full attention.
And yet, like most American adults, you persist with the delusion that you can read and send text messages while driving, engage in serious cell phone conversation while walking down the street, or work on a significant project via laptop while participating in a critical conference call – three examples of what I call senseless multitasking.
Cell phones, computers, and other technological devices are wonderful tools for making work and life more efficient, pleasurable, flexible and manageable, but only if we use them judiciously. Judicious use means recognizing that if you use technology in ways that force you to put your full attention in two places at once, you aren't saving time. To the contrary, you're wasting it. The bottom line is that combining two activities requiring your total attention means doing neither activity well.
The good news is that technology will save you time (and your sanity) if you recognize the limits of the average adult brain. Many activities can be blended for greater efficiency without compromising performance. As long as you are applying technology in ways that don't distract you from situations that require your full focus, you're engaging in what I call sensible multitasking.
6 Tips for Sensible Multitasking
- Carry your laptop with you so you can read and respond to emails, work on projects, read your favorite blogs, and download music and books while you're waiting to board a flight, filling time left by a client who doesn't show up, or enduring other delays.
- Listen to music or a book on your iPod while you're driving, exercising, or cleaning the house.
- Participate in a conference call via cell phone while taking a walk somewhere peaceful and away from traffic.
- Enjoy casual phone conversation while you're gardening or doing the dishes.
- Fold laundry while you're watching TV.
- Read and respond to text messages while you're getting your hair cut or standing in the grocery store check-out line.
Now, I realize these tips won't be enough to convince you to abolish your senseless multitasking behavior. Temptations to disregard the logical reasons why it's impossible to accomplish two challenging tasks at once are everywhere and hard to resist. Even a savvy psychologist who knows more than most people do about what the brain can and can't do falls sometimes.
In a culture that provocatively pushes the fantasy that the brain can do far more than it's capable of, the only way to give up senseless multitasking is to make it hard to engage in. You can thwart your impulses to multitask senselessly by putting your Smart Phone in the trunk of your car before you get behind the wheel or by shutting down and zipping up your laptop before you get on a conference call. As with any habit you're trying to acquire, you'll fall off track and go back to your old ways from time to time, but you'll eventually reach a point where the desire to engage in senseless multitasking becomes less powerful.
Whenever pervasive pressure to participate in senseless multitasking has you feeling like you might miss something important or get left behind if you refuse to partake, simply tell yourself this: pushing your brain uncomfortably beyond what it was built to do is only wearing you out, eroding your concentration capacity, and stealing enjoyment from your life. You’ll be in a much better position to thrive in a world of constant distractions when you do your best to treat your brain well.
-Amy Wood, Psy.D.
This March, Amy Wood teaches The New Way to Wellness: An Approach Fit for Our Hectic Times
Amy Wood, Psy.D. - Through speaking, training, consulting, and one-on-one sessions, psychologist Amy Wood has helped countless adults from all walks of life and work to articulate and accomplish their own versions of success. Known for her pragmatic optimism, she believes that every human being is a unique and valuable individual with the inner resources necessary to overcome any challenge. Dr. Wood earned her doctorate from the Adler School of Professional Psychology, is certified by the College of Executive Coaching, and is based in Portland, Maine.
Dr. Wood is the author of Life Your Way: Refresh Your Approach to Success and Breathe Easier in a Fast-paced World an award-winning personal improvement book that surpasses quick-fix self-help rhetoric with a sustainable program for adapting to our perpetually hectic age. She is a co-founder of sPeak performance, a speakers bureau comprised of women authors, and is often called on for her expert opinion by media ranging from local newspapers to Parade Magazine. To learn more about Dr. Wood, visit her websites at amywoodpsyd.com and speakperformance.net.
Focus on mastering your work; not just getting the work done. Move beyond being an accomplished, results-driven task doer, to become a longterm-relationship builder and master of your work.
Step Away From the Cliff. I have this vision of the elite employee, the perfect co-worker – always prepared, totally dependable, right there to lend a hand . . . and headed straight for a cliff.
This person is committed to the organization, loyal to employer and colleagues, devoted to excellence, unerringly competent, eager to take on any and all problems.
The cliff part comes in because this wonder-worker is incapable of saying “No.” The wonder-worker can’t refuse to help, is unable to resist jumping in when something needs to be done.
There is a huge, enthusiastic market for such people. Their managers and fellow employees love them. They put in long hours, working nights at home, coming in on weekends.
No one can keep that up forever. Sooner or later, this person runs down or runs out.
If you are this person, don’t try to tough it out. It can’t be done. You’re going to have to make some changes.
First, adjust your activities, not your attitudes. Vow to retain the habits of focus and discipline that got you here. They will serve you well no matter what you do in life.
Second, devote some time to an accounting, an analysis of how you spend your days:
- What are you doing, and how long does it take?
- Why are you doing these things? Each of them?
- Don’t have time to do this examination? That, my friend, is a strong sign that you’re closer to the cliff than you thought.
However uncomfortable it makes you, step back and take stock. There are simple tracking formats that take little time – although they also reveal the frightening volume of work you are asking yourself to handle.
Third, take a good look at your relationships:
- What goes on between you and other people?
- Who does what for whom?
- Are there sensible ways to re-order responsibilities?
- Should you work on your communication and negotiation skills?
Finally, set up more productive ways to use your time. Make collaboration just as important as individual effort. Think relationships and results, not familiar old processes.
This is called mastering multiple projects, priorities and demands. It helps you become a teamwork devotee more than a task doer. You train yourself to derive deep satisfaction from collegial rather than individual results. It is a more ordered, less driven way of working.
You don’t go over a cliff. And there’s a bonus: you get a life.
Jim Millikin, has provided management and communication consultation to business, industry, and nonprofits throughout the United States since 1986. His specialties include project management, in which he holds the PMP (Project Management Professional) certification, problem solving and delegation, business writing and advertising, and negotiation and presentation skills. His work combines organizational skills with nearly thirty years' experience as a newspaper editor. www.millikenproject.com
What does accountability look like in your organization? Are you providing candidates with your expectations in the form of a job description when they interview for a position with your company? Or are you relying on memory to discuss the position that is open? Do you provide written materials that outline for your employees what the company’s expectations are? Or do you just make assumptions because they really ought to know by now? Do you discuss quality and quantity and what is acceptable? Do you talk about your expectations for attitude, customer service, and courtesy? Or do you leave the “soft stuff” discussions to someone else?
It’s easy to hold employees accountable when they’re doing whatever they’re supposed to be doing right. It’s more difficult when they’re doing it wrong. Knowing a few tricks will help you to provide meaningful feedback, whether it’s of the positive or negative variety.
If we don’t tell employees what is important to us, to our organizations, we can’t expect to hold them accountable. Tell employees what they’re doing right. Tell them what they’re doing wrong and help them understand the difference. Talk about job-related behaviors and provide ongoing feedback. Don’t wait until the annual performance evaluation takes place in December to talk about something that happened in JUNE. Talk about THAT in JUNE. When you provide feedback immediately, you provide an opportunity for the employee to meet your expectations. Consistently hold employees accountable so that there are no surprises at the end of the year.
Practice in front of a mirror, particularly if the feedback you plan on delivering is negative. You don’t need to memorize what you plan to say but you should rehearse it so you’re comfortable with the concepts you plan to discuss. And don’t hesitate to bring notes with you—talking points—so you don’t forget anything.
Be descriptive. Don’t speak in vague generalities. Speak clearly and decisively about performance expectations and the behavior that is or is not occurring.
Resist using labels. Just like when you told your kids, no name calling and we don’t use the word stupid in this house. Yeah. Just like that.
Avoid exaggerations. If the behavior has only happened once (and to be effective, your feedback should occur after the behavior happened only once), then don’t accuse the employees of doing this a zillion times.
Refrain from judgment. You don’t need to judge why something is or is not occurring. You need to point out what the expectation is and what you are holding the employee accountable to. Period. Without a judgment call.
Speak only for yourself. Your credibility will plummet the moment you say and Bob agrees with me when Bob is questioned and doesn’t know what the employee is talking about. You should be credible enough by yourself.
Restrict your feedback to things you are certain of and keep your opinion to yourself. This isn’t a time to talk about you. It’s a time to hold the employee accountable to your organization’s expectations.
Expectations and Accountability. New words for managers.
Deb Whitworth, SPHR, Senior Associate at Mercer, Inc., brings over 30 years of human resources management experience with her as she consults with for-profit and non-profit organizations. Deb guides clients through compliance issues, comprehensive human resources audits, and advises on all other HR topics as well. The SHRM Maine State Council named her the 2012 HR Leader of the year.
Conflict stories are our most interesting stories. When you see two people deeply engaged in conversation, chances are that one of them is telling a conflict story. They’re fascinating. And they elicit strong opinions and emotions.
Conflict is one way in which we come to know the world and understand each other. It can offer an opening to our most powerful selves--or the opposite. Habitual stress reactions leave us thinking we have no choice but to do what we’ve always done. And when the conflict is over, we look back, asking, “Why did I do that? What was I thinking?”
A New Way to Manage Conflict
Luckily, I’ve discovered a means to help me remember that I have choices even in the most difficult situations. I practice and teach Aikido, a Japanese martial art developed in the early 20th century. Aikido teaches how to disarm an attack without harming the attacker. Joining with and redirecting its force, Aikidoists replace resistance with connection. We call the attack a gift of energy.
Aikido principles are equally applicable in non-physical conflict, such as arguments, everyday hassles, and the emotions that come with them. Our goal is to engage the incoming energy and redirect it--to lead, guide, and manage the force by managing ourselves.
You practice Aikido in life any time you stop, take a breath, and choose a more centered way of being; when you interrupt reactive emotions and behaviors that no longer serve you; or choose to acknowledge your feelings instead of acting them out. Aikido has helped me create a life with less stress and more joy.
The next time you find yourself getting triggered by someone or something, use the energy of your emotions to help you become less reactive and more responsive:
- Notice. Wow! I'm pretty upset. Where is this coming from and what do I want to do about it?
- Stop, breathe and center yourself. Centering puts a moment of awareness between the emotion and your action.
- Act purposefully. Make a choice that aligns with your true intention. Listen with curiosity to an opposing view. Search for solutions and mutual understanding.
Emotions happen. And we can make choices about them. In order to manage others we must first understand and manage ourselves.
Judy Ringer is a popular USM Professional Development Program instructor, Judy Ringer is the author of Unlikely Teachers: Finding the Hidden Gifts in Daily Conflict. She provides conflict, communication, and presentation skills training internationally with innovative workshops based on mind/body principles from the martial art Aikido, in which she holds a second-degree black belt. Employing best practice communication models, Judy brings to life key concepts such as self-management under pressure and appreciation of other viewpoints. Her programs are interactive, experiential and energetic.
As a manager or supervisor, do you find yourself harried, having more work to do than time? It's possible you may be "picking up monkeys" that don’t belong to you.
What is a monkey? Think of it as a task or assignment you choose to take on that really isn’t your responsibility and distracts you from focusing on your own work priorities. In its simplest form, a monkey is when you take responsibility for the next step. When you hear yourself say, “I’ll look into it and get back to you,” you have most likely picked up a monkey.
The first step in getting other people’s monkeys off your back is to identify why you are picking up their monkeys. What’s the lure?
- I enjoy/feel the need to help or rescue others
- I’m afraid/concerned about letting people down
- I want the task done right
- I’d rather say ‘yes’ than ‘no’
- I’m good/or the best person for the task
- I enjoy being involved
- I can do the task faster
Once you have identified the motivator, reframe your thoughts. In order to act differently, you have to think differently. For example, if you enjoy helping others, reframe your thinking from “I’ll do the task because that’s how I demonstrate I’m helpful,” to “I help people by teaching them self-reliance.” If you have a hard time saying ‘no’, reframe by asking yourself, “What will I be saying ‘yes’ to if I don’t pick up this monkey?” (e.g., a shorter workweek, less stress, more time with family, etc.)
Lastly, assertively resist the care and feeding of other people’s monkeys. Here are three communication tools that will help:
1. Partial Agreement
“You’re correct. This task was done in the past by the previous supervisor. I am rearranging work assignments and have every confidence in your ability and experience as a senior member of this team.”
“It hasn’t been part of your day-to-day routine. It has always been part of your job.”
3. Ask a question
“What are your concerns about this assignment?”
4. Contrasting (I don’t want…I do want)
“I don’t want you to think I’m dissatisfied with the quality of work you do. I do want you to be more efficient. I believe this assignment can be completed with the resources you have. Let’s discuss how this can be accomplished.”
5. Emphasize a thought/feeling
“I understand it is more work. We all are taking on additional responsibilities.”
Remember, your primary responsibility as a supervisor or manager is to get work done through others. Coach and develop your employees to regain control of their monkeys. Allow them to act and be accountable for their own work. Teach responsibility by giving responsibility. And finally, give the gift of self-reliance!
- Lynne M. Richards, MBA
Lynne Richards, M.B.A., www.leadinggenerations.com, is a member of the National Speaker's Association, and author and founder of Leading Generations, a training and leadership development firm. Lynne specializes in helping people develop their leadership and presentation skills. With over 20 years of experience in management and training, she brings a wealth of practical experience to the classroom.
Lynne Richards is a lead instructor in USM’s Professional Development Certificate Program in Supervision.
As a grant writer, you need to be on top of all the latest advances in technology and software. Two of my favorite current software programs are Evernote and Adobe Acrobat Pro.
Consider using Evernote for your next grant project. This free multi-platform program can help organize your grant writing projects and key files in a more intuitive style than straight file management.
You can load the Evernote program on to all of your devices so you can sync the info between your desktop, laptop, smartphone and tablet. For example, if you find research on your grant topic or information on a collaborating organization on the web or through an email attachment, you can easily clip it to an Evernote folder and have it available to read or share with any of your internet devices.
Evernote includes a useful text program if you want to write or edit your proposal text. This is most useful if you are using your tablet or smartphone and do not have immediate access to your preferred word processing program.
I am gravitating more and more of my work on to Evernote. You might want to give it a try.
If you have already tried Evernote but did not find it useful, you need to revisit. The program has recently been updated with a more user-friendly layout and file attachment system.
Another program I highly recommend for grant writers is Adobe Acrobat Pro software. This software allows you to easily combine different files into a single pdf document and also allows you to capture the text from scanned documents and convert the text into digital text. Adobe Acrobat Pro software is expensive but worth the investment. If you are connected to a nonprofit organization, you can purchase discounted versions at a fraction of the retail price on the techsoup.org website.
- Jack Smith
The Smith Group
The Smith Group is a consulting practice specializing in training and consulting services to public agencies primarily in the areas of program development, grant management and organizational development.
Clients include large and small nonprofits, professional firms and government agencies. The Smith Group is based in Houston, TX and has been in business for over 24 years. Jack Smith is the principal consultant.
Almost all of us spend a large amount of time in meetings. Attending a meeting that is unnecessary or feels like a waste of time is so frustrating. And attending a great meeting, one that is focused and well organized, is such a good feeling.
To have a great meeting, either as the leader or attender, you should answer these questions:
(1) Why are we meeting? What is our purpose?
(2) What do we expect (or need) as outcomes? What do we want to walk away with as products?
(3) Do we need interactive communication? Meetings should not be a one-way flow or “dump” of information. The purpose of a meeting is to bring people together to:
- Discuss ideas
- To develop group ownership of a problem and its solution
- To create group commitment to an idea, goal or project
- To develop agreement or make decisions
(4) Who should attend, and what roles should each person be ready to perform: e.g.: facilitator, scribe, information provider, expert, contributor to discussion, decision makers.
(5) How shall we meet?
- Face to face
- Phone conference
- Video conference
(6) What materials do we need for the meeting? At minimum have an agenda with clear designations of who will be leading each segment of the agenda, and the time frame. If you are using any technology in the meeting, double check that it is working. Also consider providing paper and pens for each participant. You might think, too, of having snacks or beverages for everyone.
If you are not the leader of the meeting, have the confidence to ask questions of the leader. Ask for the purpose statement, desired outcomes, why you have been included on the guest list, etc. This will help you be a better participant.
- Dee Kelsey and Pam Plumb
Dee Kelsey and Pam Plumb from Great Meetings! Inc. based on their book Great Meetings! Great Results. Dee and Pam are lead instructors in the USM Professional Development Meeting Facilitation Certificate Program.
Learn more about Dee Kelsey and Pam Plumb.