2020-21 Catalogs

Geography-Anthropology Course Descriptions


ANT 101 Anthropology: The Cultural View
This course is a basic introductory survey of cultural anthropology. It examines the differences between cultures as well as cultural universals, and the relationship between social organization, ideology, economics, and political structure in different types of societies. It reviews the various theoretical approaches in cultural anthropology's attempt to explain human behavior, presenting examples from foraging, farming, and contemporary industrial societies through readings and films. Cr 3.

ANT 103 Introduction to Archaeology
This course describes the methods and theories used by modern archaeologists to uncover information about past human life ways. Attention is given to techniques of survey and excavation of archaeological materials; concepts of space and time in archaeology; and detailed analysis of artifacts and organic residues. Some attention will be given to specific topics such as the archaeology of New England, the Caribbean, and Japan. Cr 3

ANT 104 Archaeological Science
Archaeological science presents principals and methods used by modern archaeologists to uncover information about past human life ways.  Attention is given to techniques of survey, excavation of archaeological materials; concepts of space and time in archaeology; and detailed analysis of artifacts and organic residues.  Issues in world prehistory concerning the development of agriculture, and preservation of the past will be covered.  An integral laboratory component each week will focus on data analysis, conservation methods, maritime resource utilization, environmental degradation and sustainability in the Gulf of Maine.  Some attention will be given to specific topics such as the archaeology of New England, Caribbean, Japan and Peru and the Isles of Shoals in the Gulf of Maine.  Cr. 4.

ANT 105 Society, Environment, and Change
This course examines the complex and changing relationship between communities, cultures, and the environment over time and across multiple geographic scales. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, the course considers the drivers behind societal and environmental change from early hunter-gatherer and farming communities to more complex contemporary landscapes across the world. The course concludes with a focus on identifying options to build sustainable, resilient, and adaptive social-ecological systems. Cr. 3.

ANT 201 Human Origins
This course focuses on the fossil and cultural evidence for human evolution. Topics to be covered include evolutionary theory, primate behavior, hominid origins, the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of fossil hominids, Pleistocene cultural adaptations, and the origin of modern Homo sapiens. The relationship between biology, geography, and culture is explored using the skeletal and archaeological evidence for human evolution. Cr 3.

ANT 202 Origins of Civilization
This course traces the evolution of human culture from the origins of farming and domestication, to the development of complex societies. General processes of urbanization and social stratification will be investigated, and examples will be drawn from throughout the Old and New Worlds, including the classical civilizations of the Near East, Southeast Asia, Mexico, and Peru. Cr 3.

ANT 204 The Gulf of Maine: Archaeology, Ecology, and Environmental Change
The Gulf of Maine class describes the methods and theories used by archaeologists, geologist, marine scientist, environmental scientist and policy makers to understand changes in human life ways and environmental conditions over time.  Attention is given reconstruction of changes in sea-level over time: excavation and interpretation of archaeological materials from maritime sites; understanding of species distribution and interaction over time; and policy making related to environmental change of the Anthropocene Issues in coastal erosion, declining cod stocks, predator-prey relations, environmental restoration and cultural heritage be covered.  An integral laboratory component will focus on proxy and modern evidence for the dynamic and changing ecosystem.  Some attention will be given to specific topics such as regional climatic change, the Casco Bay Estuary Project and research institutes focused on marine environments in the Gulf of Maine. Cr 4.

ANT 213 Human Ecology
This course examines interactions between human societies and their natural environments. Human adaptation is viewed as a problem-solving process, involving the development of strategies for maximizing energy efficiency and reproductive success, for warding off environmental stress, and for reducing conflicts. These management strategies are examined for a number of human societies, and are used to gain insight into modern decision-making processes. Prerequisite: ANT 101 or 102. Cr 3.

ANT 220 Indigenous Communities of North America
This course provides an ethnographic perspective on the history and traditional cultures of native North Americans. Emphasis is placed on the relationship of aboriginal native cultures to their environments, and the evolution of complex societies in certain regions of North America. Also included is discussion of the fragmentation of indigenous societies that followed the European invasion of North America. Cr 3.

ANT 224 Ancient Mesoamerica
An introduction to the archaeology and ethnohistory of the indigenous peoples of Mexico and adjacent parts of Central America, from the beginning until the sixteenth century. Primary attention will be to the Olmec, Maya, and Aztec civilizations. Cr 3.

ANT 230 Hunters and Gatherers
Hunting and gathering is a way of life, not simply a subsistence technique. Ninety-nine percent of human evolutionary history involved this kind of life, and our biology as a species was created through this mode of existence. In this ethnographically oriented course we will study several hunter-gatherer societies including the Ju’/hoansi, the Mbuti, the Australian aborigines, and the Inuit. Special attention will be given to understanding the traditional life and world view of hunter-gatherers, but we will also focus on how recent political and economic events are changing their lives. Cr 3.

ANT 232 The Anthropology of Sex and Gender
Gender is a fundamental platform for the organization of society. The social meanings given to bodies, sexuality, procreation, parenting, and work extend beyond notions of identity, interpersonal relationships, sexuality, and households. Gender also involves economics, government, religion, politics, science, technology, war, and globalization. This course rests on the premise that sex and gender are both “culturally constructed” and explores how gendered practices and beliefs serve as “systems” of differentiation. The “politics of difference” is explored across a variety of Western and non-Western cultures. Cr 3.

ANT 233 Food and Culture
This course focuses on food as an essential and central part of human experience. We will examine the anthropology of food and food habits, including an evolutionary-ecological perspective, the reconstruction of past human diets from archaeological evidence, and a cross-cultural examination of the diversity of human food preferences and avoidances. An important goal of the course will be to try to understand appreciate cultural differences in food habits from both an ecological and a societal point of view. Cr 3.

ANT 255 Cultures of Africa
Africa is a vast continent rich in cultural diversity. This course will explore a variety of African people and cultures south of the Sahara. Students will read ethnographic case studies about small-scale communities that focus on interrelated issues such as music, religion, politics, economics, geography, ethnicity, and gender. The course will consider the effects of colonial periods on indigenous populations but will emphasize post-independence Africans. Students will learn to challenge negative Western representations of Africa by focusing on the power and perseverance of African people and their cultures. Cr 3.

ANT 262 Women, Arts & Global Tourism
All over the world women are improving their socioeconomic status, investing in their families, and contributing to community development through involvement in tourism arts and crafts production. We will learn about the historical and contemporary experiences of women from North and South America, Africa, Asia and other international settings. The course will explore themes of cultural heritage, culture change, traditional versus tourist art, gender inequality, empowerment and community development. Cr 3.

ANT 280 Prehistoric Art
This course takes a combined anthropological, historical, and critical approach and focuses on two case studies: 1) the Palaeolithic (Ice Age) art of Eurasia (ca. 32,400-10,000 years ago); and 2) the pre-colonial rock art of southern Africa (prior to 1652 AD). It reviews the diversity of forms and activities constituting prehistoric image making, and their numerous interpretations, including: "art for art's sake," magico-religion, structuralism, neo-evolutionary functionalism, and shamanism. It also considers the sociopolitical climate within which these theories have been proposed and identifies problematic assumptions and biases. The term "prehistoric art" is a major topic of discussion as students evaluate the relevance, appropriateness, and limitations of a western (European) definition of "art" for understanding non-Western image making. Cr 3.

ANT 295 Topics in Anthropology
This course provides in-depth analysis of relevant topics not available in regular course offerings. The topics vary depending upon current issues of significance and the special background of the instructor. May be repeated for credit when topics vary. Cr 3-4.

ANT 302 Medical Anthropology
This course considers the interface between medicine and anthropology in terms of both human biology and society. The course develops concepts of health as effective adaptation to environmental stresses, including infectious disease, nutritional stress, and psychosomatic illness, among others. It traces the history of health and disease in human society from hunter-gatherers to modern urban, industrial communities, and examines the way in which human populations have attempted to deal with various agents of disease. The course examines the diversity of human theories of disease causation and explores the role of modern medicine in effective health care delivery to persons of different cultural and ethnic backgrounds. Prerequisite: ANT 101, 102 or permission of instructor. Cr 3.

ANT 306 Analysis of Archaeological Materials
This course provides an opportunity for in-depth study of methods used in the analysis of archaeological materials after they are recovered from excavations. Students will work in teams to apply analytical techniques to archaeological site collections including ceramics; stone, bone, and shell artifacts; and archaeological soils and faunal remains. Credit will vary with the range of techniques covered in a particular semester. Prerequisite: ANT 103, or permission of instructor. Cr 3-6.

ANT 308/ANT 508 Environmental Archaeology
Students will be introduced to the analytical techniques that are commonly used in the archaeological study of past environments and environmental change. Topics to be covered include archaeological soils, preservation conditions, the reconstruction of past climates and landforms, and the analysis of plant and animal communities from archaeological evidence. In semesters when this course carries more than three credits, requirements will include a substantial research project. Prerequisite: ANT 103 or GYA 300 or permission of instructor. Cr 3-6.

ANT 315/ANT 515 Ethnography: Methods, Ethics, and Practice
This course offers students an overview of the methods of ethnographic observation and analysis, and of the ethical considerations of conducting such research. Students will be required to carry out ethnographic fieldwork, employing appropriate methods of data collection and analysis. Credit will vary depending on the scope of the fieldwork project, as determined by the instructor. Prerequisites: ANT 101, or permission of the instructor. Cr 3.

ANT 320 Anthropology & the Museum
This course explores the complicated and sometimes fractious relationship between anthropology and museums of ethnography and natural history in both North America and abroad. Museums are ideological sites that produce particular (self-serving) understandings of Us and Them. Since the later-1800s, museums have figured prominently in how the public learns about non-western cultures while also being a place of legitimate anthropological research. As well, some of anthropology's more significant academic debates have been fought out in the museum. These overlapping relationships are the subject of this course. Prerequisite: ANT 101 or ANT 103, or permission of instructor. Cr 3.

ANT 350 International Development
The aim of this course is to understand the global and local aspects of the social, cultural, economic, and political development processes in nations and societies of the Global South.  It will highlight how social scientists approach the complex issues involved in international development. The first part of the course will cover mainstream international development theory whereby we will analyze basic assumptions underlying competing economic and social theories of international development. The second part of the course will explore the environmental and social dimensions of development often overlooked by mainstream international development theory and practice. In relation to the environment, we will focus on issues of environmental degradation and sustainability. Course materials will cover global trends in climate change, but we will focus on case studies to elucidate sustainable development issues. Under social aspects of development, we will investigate contemporary trends that emphasize local ownership and participation. Among other topics, this section will look at the role of NGOs and gender in development of the Global South. Prerequisite: College Writing required, recommend SCA; or permission of instructor. Cr. 3.

ANT 360/ANT 560 Public Archaeology
This course introduces students to the interpretation of archaeological information for the public benefit. Topics to be covered include museum exhibits, collection management, federal and state legislation, ethics, site conservation database management, and GIS. Students will work in teams to produce a finished product for presentation during Archaeology Awareness Week. The course includes prehistoric excavation and a trip to two museums. Credit varies with specific substantial topics and project breadth. Prerequisite: ANT 103 or permission of instructor. Cr 3-6.

ANT 380 African American Historical Archaeology
In this course, we look at how the identities of African Americans have been constructed over time by archaeologists, anthropologists, historians, geographers, and journalists. The course explores both regional and personal identities and the interrelationships between these two aspects of identity, and examines the effects of racism, ethnocentrism and sexism on identity construction. The course considers economy, historic environmental and geographical factors and how the construction of identity is affected by the experience of place. It concludes by examining contemporary race relations, the relationship to social scientists, and the public at large. Cr 3.

ANT 395 Topics in Anthropology
This course provides in-depth analysis of relevant topics not available in regular course offerings. The topics vary depending upon current issues of significance and the special background of the instructor. May be repeated for credit when topics vary. Cr 3-4.

ANT 410 Japan: Archaeology, Environmental History and Multicultural Perspectives
This course will focus on understanding select aspects of ethnicity and the cultural character of Japan. A multi-disciplinary approach will examine archaeology, cultural anthropology, environmental history and modern and postmodern historical research and writings. The archaeological investigations will focus on ethnicity and long-term adaptations of the Japanese and Ainu people. The cultural anthropology component will examine Japanese cultural identity and rice agriculture. Further, it will examine social inequity within Japan. A case study focused on wolves revealed a complex environmental history and offers a perspective on human-animal relations in a deteriorating global biosystem. A multi-cultural perspective on the recent past examines the changing dimensions of national identity from an internal and external perspective. Cr 3.

ANT 495 Topics in Anthropology
This course is designed to undertake detailed, in-depth analysis of important topics and issues in such subfields of anthropology as sociocultural anthropology, biological anthropology and archaeology. Topics vary from semester to semester. Research papers are required. Prerequisite: junior standing or permission of instructor. Cr 3.


GEO 101 Human Geography
This course examines social, economic, and political processes that shape the contemporary global landscape, with particular emphasis on the relationships between developed and developing regions of the world. Cartography, population trends, agricultural systems, migration, urbanization, and industrialization are among the topics covered. Cr 3.

GEO 102 Physical Geography
This course examines the physical processes of the environment as they relate to human endeavors. Climate, soil, vegetation, land form, water, and mineral resources are among the topics covered. Laboratory exercises acquaint the student with the materials and methods of physical geography. Climate data, topographic maps and field observations are employed to solve practical problems of human interaction with the environment. Cr 4.

GEO 103 Human-Environmental Geography
Using geographic perspectives, this course focuses on the changing nature of the earth’s environment and the human role in these changes. Both direct and indirect human impacts on the biosphere, the atmosphere, and the hydrosphere are considered, including tropical deforestation and the loss of biodiversity, the human role in global climate change, and the impact of human actions on world fisheries. Local and regional examples will be incorporated. Cr 3.

GEO 104 World-Regional Geography
This course will familiarize students with the diversity of people and places in the world by examining the physical, political, and cultural geography of different regions of the world. Emphasis will be given to development of regions within a global framework. This course will add to the general education of students by developing their geographic skills and by enhancing their geographic awareness and knowledge of the world through various aspects of global diversity. Cr 3

GEO 105 Society, Environment, and Change
This course examines the complex and changing relationship between communities, cultures, and the environment over time and across multiple geographic scales. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, the course considers the drivers behind societal and environmental change from early hunter-gatherer and farming communities to more complex contemporary landscapes across the world. The course concludes with a focus on identifying options to build sustainable, resilient, and adaptive social-ecological systems. Cr 3.

GEO 107 Maps and Math
Maps are accurate drawings of the world. They are scale models produced by locating, measuring, and surveying landscapes. A map is a picture made of numbers. In this course students will learn how maps are made, and how math is embedded into every aspect of the cartographic process. Cr. 3.

GEO 108/PPM 522 Introduction to ArcGIS
An introduction to the ArcGIS software, stressing basic operation of this popular GIS package. Topics covered include system navigation, data display, data download, and printing public domain and user-created geographical data sets. Cr 3.

GEO 120 Geography of Maine
This course will examine Maine as a geographic region. Physical and cultural attributes of the state will be analyzed. Political, economic and demographic factors will be emphasized in viewing the assets and problems of the Maine environment and in planning Maine's future. Cr 3.

GEO 170 Global History: Mapping the World Across Cultures
World history, from the classical through the modern eras, embracing the cultures of Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas, examined through the maps that different cultures have made of their worlds. Students analyze maps from the collections of USM’s Osher Map Library to reveal how world maps have variously embodied cultural preconceptions, religious convictions, scientific findings, and political concerns. Special attention to the processes of early modern and modern imperialism and globalization. Cr 3.

GEO 203 Urban & Regional Development
Students will survey contemporary patterns of urban and regional development through comparative analysis. Students will examine links between urbanization, employment, and social welfare in different political and economic contexts as the course moves from the global scale to the local. Students will be introduced to a series of research skills including the use of computer databases and spreadsheet programs, many of which will be of use in other courses. Cr 3.

GEO 204 Coastal and Marine Geography
Coastal border and broader marine regions are the vanguard for issues of global change, development pressures, competing uses, and conflicting claims. The course aims to explore, integrate, and synthesize information about physical, biological, socio-political, and economic aspects of coastal and marine environments to understand impacts of natural change and human activities over multiples scales and time periods. Cr. 3

GEO 209 Introduction to Land Use Planning
This course offers an overview of human/land relationships as they influence contemporary patterns of settlement and use of the land. It will discuss the logic of a planning process as a method of decision making; the formulation of goals and evaluation of alternative courses of action; standards and requirements for specific planning objectives (such as land use, energy, recreation, transportation); and the place of the planning function in government and the role of citizens and private groups. Introduction to basic planning tools and techniques including PERT, aerial photography, and methods of land inventory and classification will be presented. Cr 3.

GEO 210 Planning Maine Communities: Current Issues & Directions
This course will examine the issues facing Maine communities such as providing affordable housing, maintaining and improving the community's physical facilities such as streets, sewers, playgrounds, etc., disposing of solid and hazardous wastes, stimulating jobs and economic development, providing adequate transportation facilities, and preserving Maine's environment and lifestyle in the face of growth. It will also address how these issues can be addressed through the use of the planning process and sound planning techniques. Cr 3.

GEO 255 Making a Living: Workers in a Global Economy
Our daily experiences shape and are shaped by changing economic landscapes through our patterns of work, consumption, and leisure. The course addresses the prospects and challenges for making a living in a global economy. We will examine a variety of perspectives on work, both paid and unpaid. We will pay particular attention to the connection of workers between and across places. The course discusses both new and old geographical divisions of labor and the restructuring of work and workplaces at the international, regional, local and household scales. Prerequisites: EYE. Cr 3.

GEO 270 Mapping Environments and People: Data Visualization and Analysis
The history and practice of analytical mapping — of environmental and social phenomena — introduces students to basic concepts in quantitative reasoning and in the visual display of quantitative information. Students will study early analytic maps from the collections of USM’s Osher Map Library (from magnetism to ethnography to economics) to determine how the data were collected and analyzed; students will map data to implement the principles discussed in class. Cr 3.

GEO 295 Topics in Geography
This course provides in-depth analysis of relevant topics not available in regular course offerings. The topics vary depending upon current issues of significance and the special background of the instructor. May be repeated for credit when topics vary. Cr 3-4.

GEO 302/GEO 502 Gender, Work, and Space
Students will examine the ways in which the workforce is divided by gender, race, class, and ethnicity and how location and space shape and sustain such divisions. Competing explanations for why women and minorities hold jobs that differ distinctly from jobs held by other workers will be examined. Students will learn how a geographic understanding of gender, race, ethnicity, and class can help explain more fully the current position of women in the economy. Cr 3.

GEO 303/GEO 503 Economic Geography
This course examines the intersection between economies and geography. Emphasis is placed on the social, cultural, and political contexts within which economies develop and are regulated and restructured. Students are introduced to the skills which allow them to interpret and understand the present economic landscapes and to evaluate the factors and trends that anticipate the future. Prerequisites: one of the following: ANT 101, GEO 101, GEO 203, GEO 255, ECO 101, ECO 102, or permission of instructor. Cr 3.

GEO 304/504 Arctic and North Atlantic Regions
The Arctic and the adjacent North Atlantic region have received much recent attention due to climate change and the global economy. Further, changes and events are linking these distant regions more closely with Maine.  The course will address the many facets of these regions and their changes and highlight and explore the evolving connections with Maine. Prerequisite: ANT 204, GEO 204 or permission of instructor. Cr. 3.

GEO 305/GEO 505/GEO 605 Remote Sensing
Theory and techniques of image processing and analysis for remotely sensed digital data acquired from airplane and satellite platforms. Topics include image enhancement and classifications, spectral analysis, and landscape change detection techniques. Practical applications of natural and built landscapes are considered using remotely sensed datasets and techniques. Cr 3.

GEO 308/GEO 508/GEO 608 GIS Applications I
Students are introduced to vector-based geographical information systems (GIS). Topics include overviews of geospatial technologies, spatial analysis, GIS data, system operation, the interpretation of results, and professional practices. The course comprises a weekly lecture and laboratory. Students are evaluated with tests, laboratory assignments, and on the basis of a substantial project. Cr 3-4.

GEO 320/GEO 520 Conservation of Natural Resources
This course examines the geographical approaches to natural resource use and management. It will offer the study of the geographic distribution and physical attributes of natural resources, their role in economic development, and the socio-political factors governing decision making about their use. Management strategies for forests, soils, wetlands, and energy resources are assessed. Recommended prerequisites: GEO 101, GEO 102, or GEO 103. Cr 3.

GEO 340/GEO 540/GEO 640 Digital Mapping
Students are exposed to the latest digital survey gear and integrated techniques with applications in geoscience, geography, and environmental science. Instrumentation includes both static and real-time kinematic GPS (global positioning system) and autolock servo-driven electronic total station. Detailed precision survey data are combined with geo-referenced maps and imagery in GIS software. Prerequisites: introductory course in GEY, GEO, or ESP, and additional 200-level course in any of the above areas. Cr 4.

GEO 370 Maps, Territory, Power
Modern mapping developed in concert with modern states and empires, as administrators have sought to understand and control provinces and regions. This course explores the roles of maps in creating, consolidating, and communicating knowledge of, and control over, territory. The course focuses on the West, including the U.S., and especially on the role of the state in the development of modern cartography, GIS, and modern GIS databases. Comparative studies will be made of “state” mapping practices in the classical (Hellenistic and Roman) era, medieval Europe, and traditional Asia (SW Asia, India, China, Korea, and Japan). Also considered is the role of mapping in resistance to exertions of state power. This course uses the rare and reference collections of USM’s Osher Map Library and Smith Center for Cartographic Education [OML] — together with online resources — to explore the interrelations of maps, territory, and power. Cr 3.

GEO 395 Topics in Geography
This course provides in-depth analysis of relevant topics not available in regular course offerings. The topics vary depending upon current issues of significance and the special background of the instructor. May be repeated for credit when topics vary. Cr 3-4.

GEO 408/GEO 518/GEO 618 GIS Applications II
Students explore the use of geographical information systems (GIS) in research and professional environments. Building upon knowledge and skills developed in GEO 308, students design and execute a substantial project. Project design focuses on generating hypotheses, planning time lines and individual work assignments, and identifying technical and data resources. Projected execution is undertaken using a variety of raster, vector, and graphical user interface (GUI) software, as appropriate. Prerequisite: GEO 308/GEO 508/GEO 608 or permission of instructor. Cr. 3-4.

GEO 438/GEO 538/GEO 638 Independent Study in GIS
Students will work closely with a faculty member to develop and complete a course of study in a specialized aspect of GIS or remote sensing. Variable credits will be offered. Prerequisite: GEO 308/GEO 508/GEO 608 or instructor permission, and program approval. Cr 1-3.

GEO 445/GEO 545/GEO 645 Drone Mapping
This course will introduce students to the use of sUAS (small unmanned aircraft systems), known as remote-controlled quadcopter drones, as the latest digital mapping tool available today. Drone-based overlapping photo sets and the latest photogrammetric software are used to generate custom high resolution orthomosaic maps and 3D models. Tools and techniques will be combined in a precision drone mapping project targeting a local area field site. Prerequisites: GEO340/GEO540/GEO 640 or permission of instructor. Cr 3.

GEO 448/GEO 548/GEO 648 GIS Internship
Students work with a public agency, private firm, municipality, nonprofit organization, or research unit, using geospatial technology to complete a clearly defined project under the direct supervision of an on-site professional. A USM faculty advisor who is directly involved with USM GIS oversees the internship. At the course's conclusion, students submit a portfolio including a log, samples of the work completed, and an evaluation from the on-site supervisor. Prerequisite: GEO 308/GEO 508/GEO 608, or instructor permission, and program approval. Cr 1-3.

GEO 455/GEO 555 Gender, Race, and Class in the City
This course will focus on the relationships among gender, race, and class and urban spaces in twentieth century U.S. cities. The course will explore how urban spaces reflect and perpetuate different relations of power, inequality, and identity. First, we explore how different frameworks for urban analysis help to explain the social and spatial organization of U.S. cities. We will develop a framework for urban analysis that integrates race, class, and gender, and draws upon the geographic concepts of place and scale. Second, we will apply our integrated framework to contemporary metropolitan processes and problems. Prerequisite: GEO 302 or permission of instructor. Cr 3.

GEO 458/GEO 558/GEO 658 Research Applications in GIS
This course is a workshop in spatial analysis in which students undertake an original research project. The objective of the course is to generate a product which meets professional standards for publication or presentation at a professional meeting, allowing students to build resumes and gain exposure to a professional audience. A variety of software will be used in the course, as projects demand. The starting point will be the open-source geospatial analysis software GeoDa. This tool provides state-of-the-art methods for geospatial analysis, spatial econometrics, and geo-visualization. Topics covered will include: exploratory spatial data analysis, spatial autocorrelation statistics for aggregate data, basic spatial regression analysis for point and polygon data, univariate and multivariate local cluster maps, principal components analysis, k-means, hierarchical clustering, and spatial econometrics. Prerequisites: GEO 308/GEO 508/GEO 608 or permission of instructor, and GEO 408/GEO 518/GEO 618 (previous completion or concurrent registration). Cr 3.

GEO 481/GEO 581 Megacities and Global Planning Issues
This course provides an overview of the interactive factors that shape the socio-economic and physical structures of megacities around the world. Students will examine the processes that influence urbanization and gain an understanding of the contemporary state of the world’s cities, with a particular focus on megacities. Students will be exposed to issues confronted by citizens, policy makers, and planners in those megacities. The course is organized geographically and will focus on selected megacities in Latin America, Africa, Asia, in addition to Europe, and the United States. Cr 3.

GEO 495 Topics in Geography
This course provides in-depth analysis of relevant topics from the perspective of an economic, political, cultural, regional or other focused approach to geographic study. The topics vary depending upon current issues of significance and the special background of the instructor. Research papers are required. Prerequisite: permission of Department. Cr 3.


GEY 100 Volcanoes, Earthquakes & Moving Plates
This course is an introduction to minerals, rocks, and the processes that have continually shaped the earth over hundreds of millions of years of geologic history. The course also explores how the movements of crustal plates generates earthquakes, volcanoes, continental rifting, sea floor spreading, subduction, and continental-scale mountain ranges. For core science course credit, registration in one of the following: GEY 101 or GEY 106 is required; concurrent registration is recommended. Cr 3.

GEY 101 Lab Experiences in Geology
This course has weekly lab sessions will focus on the basic skills of mineral identification, rock classification, and interpretation of topographic and geologic maps. Field trips to local geologic sites of interest will help illustrate rock types and geologic processes that shape our world. Traditional map, compass, and modern GPS techniques will be utilized. For core science course credit, registration in one of the following: GEY 100, GEY 103, or GEY 105 is required; concurrent registration is recommended. Cr 1.


GYA 215 Culture and Place
This course provides an introduction to the ways in which basic principles of ethnography, ethnohistory, and material culture studies can be used to understand the cultural landscape. Normally offered during either the Winter Session or the Summer Session, the course will usually be conducted in a setting outside Maine. The emphasis will be on collaborative research skills, understanding of other cultures, and appreciation of the interrelationship of anthropology and geography. Cr. 3-6.

GYA 300 Archaeology Field School
The summer field school is designed to combine training in research methods of archaeology and geography. Students will receive intensive training in methods of site survey excavation and materials analysis. Several weeks will be spent at selected sites, mapping features and landscape features, and investigating potential food resources in site areas. This will be followed by some laboratory analysis of recovered materials. This course may be repeated twice with the permission of the instructor. Cr 3-6.

GYA 350 Internship in Applied Geography-Anthropology
Internships offer the student practical experience in working with public agencies, private firms, and municipalities engaged in applied geographical-anthropological activities including, but not limited to, planning, transportation, delivery of human services, and natural resources. A written contract will be drawn up by advisor and student for each internship, specifying the number of credits sought and work required for these credits. As a general rule, internships will require at least eight hours of actual work per week. Interns will be expected to meet at least once every two weeks with instructor to discuss experiences and/or problems. In addition, a major paper will be required from each student intern discussing an aspect of the internship or the work performed during the internship. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing in Geography-Anthropology and permission of instructor. Offered pass/fail only. Cr 1-6.

GYA 400 Independent Study in Anthropology or Geography
The Department faculty offers independent study in a topic in anthropology or geography for upper-level students (junior and senior status). Students must have had at least one course from the faculty member supervising the independent study; the proposal is subject to departmental approval. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Variable credits will be offered.